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Achievement objective S8-1

In a range of meaningful contexts, students will be engaged in thinking mathematically and statistically. They will solve problems and model situations that require them to:

  • Carry out investigations of phenomena, using the statistical enquiry cycle:
    • A. conducting experiments using experimental design principles, conducting surveys, and using existing data sets
    • B. finding, using, and assessing appropriate models (including linear regression for bivariate data and additive models for time-series data), seeking explanations and making predictions
    • C. using informed contextual knowledge, exploratory data analysis, and statistical inference
    • D. communicating findings and evaluating all stages of the cycle.


  • Uses the statistical enquiry cycle.
  • Conducts experiments using experimental design principles to find solutions to problems:
    • Poses investigative questions using the statistical enquiry cycle.
    • Defines and identifies variables that need to be accounted for in the experiment.
    • Designs experiments, taking variability into account.
    • Conducts experiments to generate data.
  • Conducts surveys to investigate problems:
    • Poses investigative questions to explore using the statistical enquiry cycle.
    • Collects own survey data.
    • Uses an appropriate sampling method.
  • Uses existing data sets to find solutions to problems (may use non-linear regression):
    • Poses investigative questions to explore using the statistical enquiry cycle.
    • Locates own data and background contextual information from the Internet and other sources.
  • Selects and uses appropriate statistical models to explain relationships and make predictions and forecasts:
  • Uses exploratory data analysis to unlock the stories in the data:
    • Uses appropriate statistical graphs and tables to explore the data and communicates relevant detail and overall distributions.
    • Explores other variables or groupings to look for patterns and relationships.
    • Uses appropriate measures to communicate features of the data.
    • Uses informed contextual knowledge to support explanations and to communicate findings.
  • Makes statistical inferences.
  • Communicates findings:
    • Support (or otherwise) for original hypothesis or conjecture.
    • Appropriate graphs that relate to findings discussed in conclusion.
    • Quantifies summary statistics to support (or otherwise) the conjecture.
    • Population to which the findings can be generalised.
    • Constraints of the experiment or survey within which the findings are valid.
    • Alternative explanations.
  • Evaluates all stages of the cycle:
    • Specifies, justifies, and relates improvements (contextual or statistical) to the problem.
  • See key mathematical ideas on NZmaths.


S8-1 links from S7-1.

Possible context elaborations

  • CensusAtSchool is a valuable website for classroom activities and information for teachers on all things statistics.
  • Water taste test – this activity provides an introduction to experimental design through the students undertaking a poorly designed experiment.
  • Memory test – this activity looks at the two different types of experimental design, two independent groups and paired comparisons.

Assessment for qualifications

NCEA achievement standards at levels 1, 2 and 3 have been aligned to the New Zealand Curriculum. Please ensure that you are using the correct version of the standards by going to the NZQA website.

The NZQA subject-specific resources pages are very helpful. From there, you can find all the achievement standards and links to assessment resources, both internal and external.

The following achievement standard(s) could assess learning outcomes from this AO:

Last updated September 17, 2018