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Achievement objectives


The New Zealand Curriculum (page 30) lists four conceptual strands for the social sciences:

  • Identity, culture, and organisation
  • Place and environment
  • Continuity and change
  • The economic world

In geography the emphasis is on the 'place and environment' strand but some concepts from the other three strands are also relevant.


Over time, students will develop increasingly sophisticated understandings of the key geographic concepts.

For example, processes:

  • at level 6, students explore the meaning of the concept and some of its diverse applications
  • at level 7, they learn to apply related concepts such as time, scale, and place
  • at level 8, they explore how different processes interact and how they act at different rates.

Over time, students are expected to apply their knowledge of the key concepts in increasingly complex and unfamiliar contexts.

Students are also challenged to take greater responsibility for creating frameworks for their own learning (for example, when carrying out research) to apply more complex skills, to make connections between concepts, to appreciate different attitudes and values, and to make use of their own experiences.

Achievement objectives

Students will gain knowledge, skills, and experience to:
Level 6 Level 7 Level 8
6.1: Understand that natural and cultural environments have particular characteristics and how environments are shaped by processes that create spatial patterns. 7.1: Understand how the processes that shape natural and cultural environments change over time, vary in scale and from place to place, and create spatial patterns. 8.1: Understand how interacting processes shape natural and cultural environments, occur at different rates and on different scales, and create spatial variations.
6.2: Understand how people interact with natural and cultural environments and that this interaction has consequences. 7.2: Understand how people’s perceptions of and interactions with natural and cultural environments differ and have changed over time. 8.2: Understand how people’s diverse values and perceptions influence the environmental, social, and economic decisions and responses that they make.

Last updated April 18, 2016