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Curriculum strands

Specialist strands

AOs/LOs by level

Technological practice (TP)

6-1 | 6-2 | 6-3

7-1 | 7-2 | 7-3

8-1 | 8-2 | 8-3

Technological knowledge (TK)

6-1 | 6-2 | 6-3

7-1 | 7-2 | 7-3

8-1 | 8-2 | 8-3

Nature of technology (NT)

6-1 | 6-2

7-1 | 7-2

8-1 | 8-2

Design in technology (DET)

6-1 | 6-2

7-1 | 7-2


Manufacturing (MFG)

6-1 | 6-2

7-1 | 7-2


Technical areas (TCA)


Construction and mechanical technologies (CMT)

6-1 | 6-2 | 6-3 | 6-4

6-5 | 6-6 | 6-7

7-1 |  7-2 |  7-3 |  7-4

7-5 |  7-6 |  7-7

8-1 | 8-2 | 8-3 | 8-4

8-5 | 8-6 | 8-7

Design and visual communication (DVC)

6-1 | 6-2 | 6-3

7-1 | 7-2 | 7-3

8-1 | 8-2 | 8-3

Digital technologies (DTG)

6-1 | 6-2 | 6-3 | 6-4

6-5 | 6-6 | 6-7 | 6-8

6-9 | 6-10 | 6-11 | 6-12

7-1 |  7-2 |  7-3 |  7-4

7-5 |  7-6 |  7-7 |  7-8

7-9 |  7-10 |  7-11 |  7-12

8-1 | 8-2 | 8-3 | 8-4

8-5 |  8-6/7 | 8-8 | 8-9

8-10 |  8-11 | 8-12

Processing technologies (PRT)

6-1 | 6-2 | 6-3

7-1 | 7-2 | 7-3

8-1/2 | 8-3

Implement a process PRT 6-1

Achievement standard 1.60 AS 91082

Implement a process focuses on undertaking appropriate procedures to process a specified product. Products may include but are not limited to: fermented or non-fermented foods and beverages; biologically active products; household chemicals; toiletries; cosmetics; paper; resin or fibreglass products. 

Learning objective: PRT 6-1

Students will:

  • Implement basic procedures to make a processed product.


Students can:

  • Implement basic processing operations.
  • Conduct basic tests to determine if a product has met required specifications.
  • Follow relevant health and safety practices   


Prior to level 6 students should be developing a range of skills, processes and techniques using a range of materials to develop skill and confidence in a processing context. Processing operations should include a range from the following: measuring, shaping, or finishing contamination prevention or disposal; mixing, extracting, separating or growing; and heating, cooling or reacting with associated testing techniques. Relevant health and safety and codes of practice should also be a focus of the teaching and learning programme.

At level 6 students learn to follow appropriate processing operations and undertake testing to make a product that meets specifications. They should also have a clear understanding of health and safety codes of practice and HACCP 

Students should also learn what accuracy, independence and economy of time, resources and materials looks like within this context.

The Teacher Guidance section provides information that supports teachers scaffolding of learning from levels 1-8 of the curriculum. This allows for differentiation of a programme of learning.

The deliberate use of provide, guide, and support in this section signals that as students' capacity for self-management increases, teachers progressively reduce the level of scaffolding provided.

  • Provide – the teacher should take full responsibility for introducing and explicitly teaching new knowledge, skills or practices.
  • Guide – the students have a level of understanding and competency on which they can draw but the teacher remains primarily responsible for continuing to develop these.
  • Support – the students take primary responsibility for their own learning, drawing on all their previous experiences to consolidate and extend their understanding. The teacher is supportive rather than directive.
  • The Teacher Guidance also uses the term ensure to indicate when the teacher plays a monitoring role to check that conditions critical for learning are present.

Teacher Guidance

To support students to implement basic procedures to make a processed product at level 6, teachers could:

  • Provide opportunity for students to undertake basic processing operations. 
  • Develop step-by-step guides to inform student practice.
  • Enable students to undertake basic testing such as s pH, temperature, size to determine appropriateness of a product.
  • Ensure students apply relevant health and safety practices.         

Contexts for teaching and learning

Choosing the context for the learning and assessment

This learning objective is about implementing basic procedures to process a specified product. However within a programme of work it is possible to link these skills with knowledge about processing and /or preservation, packaging and storage– refer to learning objective PRT 6-2 and PRT 6-3 “Demonstrate understanding of basic concepts and techniques used in the preservation, packaging and storage of products” and “Demonstrate understanding of basic techniques involved in processing materials” respectively.

While this could be in a context of processing a food product the following would hold true for other products that may be developed by the students. These include processing other food products, fermented drinks and foods; processing resin and/or fibreglass in jewellery, and surfboard making, concrete in simple structures.

Basic procedures are those that require the student to perform a linear sequence of operations, as instructed, to make a product.  The material/s and operations to be undertaken, and a step-by-step guide must be determined by the teacher.

  • Give your students practice in processing and testing similar products to the assessment context you will use such as making a similar products using techniques as outlined in the learning objective and provide opportunities for students to explore a range of processing operations and tests. 
  • Learning opportunities could include processing to make:
    • ginger beer
    • cheese
    • wrapped boiled sweets
    • photographs (using negatives)
    • paper
    • ice cream
    • concrete furniture or ornaments
    • simple resin jewellery

Examples of Processing operations include one or more of:

  • measuring/shaping/finishing, for example, weighing sugar, quantity of fruit, vegetables, measuring yield of recipe (i.e. the number of jars of preserve the quantities in the recipe produces), grating, chopping, slicing, labelling
  • contamination prevention/disposal, for example, sterilising, dependent on food, eliminating air
  • mixing/extracting/separating/growing, for example, mixing ingredients together, straining, sieving (i.e. for a coulis), separating egg yolks in lemon honey
  • heating/cooling/reacting, for example, heating mixture, maintaining temperature for setting, controlling enzymes and subsequent browning in apples, pears, banana, using pectin for setting.
  • practicing suitable testing to ensure a successful product. Tests may include but are not limited to – testing for pH, temperature, colour, size and shape, ripeness, and whether the product is cooked, set or matured.
  • showing examples of best practice in existing products so students can discuss why the process/technique worked.
  • practicing sequencing of tests and processing to ensure a successful product. Students should be using established procedures that are controlled (or known) and can be repeated efficiently at any given time to achieve a consistent result. Students should be encouraged to consider ways they can reliably achieve a successful product minimising time and effort. Trialling and testing by students prior to making the final product are an essential part of meeting the specifications for the given product
  • if feasible, visit related  industries or invite a practising technologist in to school to discuss their practice with the students.
  • students should develop a sound understanding sequencing and scheduling. It is essential they know what happens to products during processing and finishing.
  • Before they begin to make their product, ensure that students know the expectations related to basic procedures.
  • Teachers and students should be familiar with "Safety in Technology Education: A Guidance Manual for New Zealand Schools" and the implications of the relevant sections when it comes to students implementing their sequence of processes.

It is important that students during the teaching programme develop and understanding of what independence means in the context of this work and that the teacher is able to make professional judgements based on this common understanding

Achieved – make (with some guidance)

“With some guidance” means the teacher (or peers) may:

  • respond to student-initiated requests for assistance, for example, where to find suitable material, or what tool to use
  • sometimes prompt the student to, for example, consider other options, think about the wisdom of a choice, or reread the brief.

The teacher (or peers) may NOT, however:

  • make any decisions for students
  • assist a student in any hands-on way (do any part of the project for them)
  • respond to frequent questions or requests for step-by-step guidance.

Merit – make “with independence and accuracy”

“With independence” means the student:

  • owns the practice (acts as if responsibility for achieving a quality outcome sits with them)
  • plans effectively, thinks ahead, is well-organised, self-starting and self-managing
  • does their own decision-making
  • books any equipment/machines they need in timely fashion
  • purchases and/or brings required materials in timely fashion
  • stores their work carefully so that it is easily retrieved next period
  • carries out appropriate checking and testing and takes required corrective action
  • recognises and deals with issues promptly, so that they are able to meet the deadline
  • is always able to describe what they are doing, why, and where their project is up to.

Literacy considerations

Students should develop specific specialist language relevant to their context relating to basic procedures

Students will also need to develop the skills such as:

  • Developing vocabulary and language specific to the context of the processing
  • capturing evidence in appropriate ways to show their processes and testing through using annotations, diagrams and writing frames

Resources to support teaching and learning

Introductory section of the senior secondary teaching and learning guide for technology

Safety in Technology Education: A Guidance Manual for New Zealand Schools

Indicators of progression:

Case study material - Food

General resources:


  • Brown, A. (2007). Understanding Food – Principles and Preparation, 4th Edition. Brooks/Cole.
  • Campbell-Platt, G. (ed). (2009). Food Science and Technology. Wiley Blackwell.
  • Hallam, E. (2005). Understanding Industrial Practices in Food Technology. Nelson Thornes.
  • Hutton, T. (2001). Food Manufacturing: An Overview (Key topics in Food Science and Technology No 4).Campden & Chorleywood Food Research Association.
  • Murano, P. (2002). Understanding Food Science and Technology. Brooks/Cole.


Assessment for qualifications

The following achievement standard(s) could assess learning outcomes from this learning objective:

  • AS 91082 Processing Technologies 1.60:Implement basic procedures to process a specified product.

Key messages from the standard

The specifications of the product, the materials to be processed, and the processing operations, sequences and tests to be undertaken will be provided to the student. 

To attain the higher grades, students should be encouraged to consider ways they can reliably achieve a successful product while minimizing time and effort. While not part of the assessment at this level, flow diagrams could also be used by both the student and assessor to comment on how the work was organised and problems were resolved, contributing towards evidence for efficiency. 

Two approaches are possible when structuring the assessment:

  1. The students are given a particular product to process and test (or products, from which they choose one. The whole class then makes the same product (or one of the alternatives). The teacher may select a product in discussion with the class. They may also allow individual students to negotiate a variation of the selected product.
  2. The students have been engaged in technological practice and are now at the point where they have fully established the specifications for their outcome and are ready to make it.

Before they begin to make their product, the teacher must ensure that:

  • each student has a set of specifications for the product (see the student instructions for an example). The specifications need to be agreed prior to the product being made. They may be teacher given or developed in negotiation with the student
  • the selected product provides sufficient scope for the student to meet the requirements of the standard
  • the student knows the criteria for a successful product
  • the student is familiar with the methods they will use to process and test the product
  • the student has access to an appropriate work environment and to the equipment and ingredients they will need to safely make their product
  • the student knows how to process the product following relevant health and safety regulations.
  • Refer to assessment resources student’s resources for some examples of testing that would be suitable to ensure a product is successfully processed. The testing should make sure the students can quantify the quality of a successfully processed product and use this to make decisions to alter their processing to improve the quality if necessary  

Basic proceduresare those that require the student to perform a linear sequence of operations, as instructed, to make a product.  The material/s and operations to be undertaken, and a step-by-step guide must be determined by the teacher. 

Materials may include but are not limited to:food ingredients, plant extracts, micro‑organisms, concrete, fibreglass, woodchips, recycled materials, and resins. 

Products may include but are not limited to – fermented or non-fermented foods and beverages; biologically active products; composts; household chemicals; toiletries; cosmetics; wood composites; dyed fibre and/or cloth; paper; moulded concrete, resin or fibreglass products. 

To process refers to the combining of materials to make a product.

Specified product refers to a product and its relevant specifications, including material specifications.  The specifications must be of sufficient rigour to allow the student to meet the standard.  The specifications need to be agreed prior to the product being made.  They may be teacher-given or developed in negotiation with the student.

Health and safety documentation may include but is not limited to:Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP), Hazardous Substances and New Organisms Act 1996 (HSNO), Physical Containment Level 1 (PC1) for working with micro-organisms.

Processing operations include:

  • one or more of – measuring, shaping, or finishing

eg weighing, counting, grinding, slicing, moulding, and laminating.

  • one or more of – contamination prevention or disposal

eg hygienic handling of materials, sanitising, working aseptically, safe disposal of biologically active materials. 

  • one or more of – mixing, extracting, separating or growing

eg liquid mixing, blending, agitating, mechanical peeling, sieving, washing, juicing, crushing, culturing by plating.

  • one or more of – heating, cooling or reacting

eg liquid heating, heating a solid, maintaining temperature for growth, steam setting, acidifying, controlling of enzymes.

Tests may include but are not limited to – testing for pH, temperature, colour, size and shape, ripeness, and whether the product is cooked, set or matured.


Students will be required to keep some evidence for assessment that should include but not limited to the following                                                                                                                                            

  • the finished product( photographic and annotated)
  • annotated diagrams, photographs of the finished product, any written comments or explanations, and any other evidence of the techniques and the testing procedures used (for example, checklists and annotated photographs)
  • This standard requires the teacher to make judgements about the ways in which techniques are implemented, as well as about the quality of the finished product. For example, the teacher is required to determine (for merit) whether the student has shown “independence and accuracy in the execution of the techniques and tests” and (for excellence) whether the student has worked “in a manner that economises time, effort, and materials”. Therefore, you must be able to justify your judgements by providing evidence derived from student or teacher recording, classroom observation, and/or discussion with students. Teacher checklists can also be used to qualify the teacher judgements of the students’ implementation processes.


  • Accuracy can be seen in the finished product, and in how the student has used information from testing.).
  • Independence can be gauged from level of teacher input required, and from classroom observation of student interactions.
  • Economy of time is gauged by observation and relates to how effectively students organise themselves in their work area
  • Economy of effort is a measure of the extent to which a student knows what to do and gets on and does it rather than relying on trial and error.
  • Economy of resources is gauged by the extent to which a student minimises the use of resources and equipment.

Economy of time, effort and resources may also all be demonstrated in one action by students. For example, students could choose the correct tool for the task that saves time and effort and minimises wastage as the tool chosen allows for the task to be completed accurately the first time.

Economy of time and effort will be commonly linked.

The final product is useful in how it exhibits accuracy, however the control the student shows in implementing the processing and testing sequence is equally important for judgement. 

For the most up to date information, teachers should be referring to the latest version of the standards, conditions of assessment and assessment resources on TKI and the moderators reports, clarifications documents and student exemplars on the NZQA website. See links below.

Resources to support student achievement

Assessment resource:

Annotated Exemplars

Last updated May 10, 2022