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Achievement objective LW 8-3

Students will:

  • understand how humans manipulate the transfer of genetic information from one generation to the next and make informed judgments about the social, ethical, and biological implications relating to this manipulation.


  • Describes a range of ways in which humans manipulate the transfer of genetic material.
  • Identifies some of the biological implications of human genetic manipulation activity on cells, individuals, populations, or ecosystems.
  • Distinguishes biological implications from the ethical and/or social implications for a given issue.
  • Uses scientific evidence to formulate and justify a personal position on a specific biotechnological issue.

Possible context elaborations

  • How was the Belgian Blue cattle breed developed?
  • What does a dairy cattle breeder look for in an AI donor?
  • How do terminator genes work?
  • Expression of human proteins in cloned cattle: a treatment for cystic fibrosis?
  • How would you selectively breed a dinosaur?
  • Cloning as a conservation strategy for endangered organisms.
  • Biofactories: Why do we use yeast to make insulin?
  • Genetically modifying crops to improve health of Third World populations.
  • Could we mitigate climate change by genetically modifying pastoral animals to reduce methane emission?
  • Embryo selection and designer babies: Should we just because we can?
  • Gene therapy: Is this still the great hope?

Assessment for qualifications

At the time of publication, achievement standards were in development to align them with The New Zealand Curriculum. Please ensure that you are using the correct version of the standards by going to the  NZQA website.

The NZQA subject-specific resources pages are very helpful. From there, you can find all the achievement standards and links to assessment resources, both internal and external.

Learn more:

Aligned level 1 achievement standards were registered for use in 2011 and level 2 for use in 2012; level 3 will be registered for use in 2013.

  • 91601 Biology 3.1 Carry out a practical investigation in a biological context, with guidance; Internal, 4 credits
  • 91602 Biology 3.2 Integrate biological knowledge to develop an informed response to a socio-scientific issue; Internal, 3 credits
  • 91603 Biology 3.3 Demonstrate understanding of the responses of plants and animals to their external environment; External, 5 credits
  • 91604 Biology 3.4 Demonstrate understanding of how an animal maintains a stable internal environment; Internal, 3 credits
  • 91605 Biology 3.5 Demonstrate understanding of evolutionary processes leading to speciation; External, 4 credits
  • 91606 Biology 3.6 Demonstrate understanding of trends in human evolution; External, 4 credits
  • 91607 Biology 3.7 Demonstrate understanding of human manipulations of genetic transfer and its biological implications; Internal, 3 credits

Last updated September 15, 2020