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Learning objectives

6-1 | 6-2
7-1 | 7-2
8-1 | 8-2

Learning objective 7-1

Students will gain knowledge, skills, and experience to:

  • understand the relationships between social, political, artistic, and technological aspects of the classical world and how these aspects influenced the lives of Greeks and Romans living in those times.


  • Selects relevant evidence and uses it to explain relationships between social, political, artistic, and/or technological aspects of the classical world.
  • Interprets primary and secondary sources about social, political, artistic, and/or technological aspects of the classical world.
  • Explains different perspectives on the connections between social, political, artistic, and/or technological aspects of the lives of the ancient Greeks and Romans.

Concepts addressed in this learning objective

  • Citizenship and society
  • Culture and identity
  • Empire and power
  • Conflict
  • Art and aesthetics

Key concepts in classical studies

Possible context elaborations

  • Conflict, as conveyed through literary texts such as Sophocles’ King Oedipus, Homer’s Odyssey – Odysseus’s return to Ithaca, Virgil’s Aeneid XII, Roman love poetry – poems by Catullus about Lesbia, Thucydides on the Peloponnesian War: how does conflict lead to change?
  • Literary conventions such as the use of language and imagery, for example, Sophoclean irony: to what extent do literary conventions help to evoke emotion?
  • Art and architecture: the relationship between the features of the work/s of art and their artistic/historical context, for example, Alexander mosaic illustrating Greek influence, the Parthenon in the time of Perikles, political message of the Tyrannicides, the emotive effect of the Laocoon group: what messages do works of art have for us?
  • The role of the state in entertainment, public buildings, monuments, and maintaining public order: how is society controlled?
  • The nature of socio-political relationships, such as the role of paterfamilias or kyrios in the family, the relationship between client and patron, emperor and senate: who are the exploited?
  • The impact of class and gender on education, employment, citizenship, political rights, and standard of living: who are the winners and losers in society?
  • The relationship between private and public worship, priesthoods, festivals: why was gaining the favour of the gods important?
  • The cause and consequences of a significant event, such as the Persian Wars, the rebuilding of the Acropolis under Perikles, the Peloponnesian War, the fall of the Republic, the eruption of Vesuvius, Masada, the Roman capture of Jerusalem by Vespasian and Titus: what makes an event significant?
  • Evolution of engineering and technology, for example, aqueducts and roads: how does science make our lives easier?

Possible achievement standards

At the time of publication, achievement standards were in development to align them with The New Zealand Curriculum. Please ensure that you are using the correct version of the standards by going to the NZQA website.

The NZQA subject-specific resources pages are very helpful. From there, you can find all the achievement standards and links to assessment resources, both internal and external.

Learn more:

Classical studies and external qualifications

Level 2 classical studies – NCEA standards

Last updated July 16, 2015