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AOs/LOs by level

Technological practice (TP)

6-1 | 6-2 | 6-3

7-1 | 7-2 | 7-3

8-1 | 8-2 | 8-3

Technological knowledge (TK)

6-1 | 6-2 | 6-3

7-1 | 7-2 | 7-3

8-1 | 8-2 | 8-3

Nature of technology (NT)

6-1 | 6-2

7-1 | 7-2

8-1 | 8-2

Design in technology (DET)

6-1 | 6-2

7-1 | 7-2

8-1/2

Manufacturing (MFG)

6-1 | 6-2

7-1 | 7-2

8-1/2

Technical areas (TCA)

8-1 

Construction and mechanical technologies (CMT)

6-1 | 6-2 | 6-3 | 6-4

6-5 | 6-6 | 6-7

7-1 |  7-2 |  7-3 |  7-4

7-5 |  7-6 |  7-7

8-1 | 8-2 | 8-3 | 8-4

8-5 | 8-6 | 8-7

Design and visual communication (DVC)

6-1 | 6-2 | 6-3

7-1 | 7-2 | 7-3

8-1 | 8-2 | 8-3

Digital technologies (DTG)

6-1 | 6-2 | 6-3 | 6-4

6-5 | 6-6 | 6-7 | 6-8

6-9 | 6-10 | 6-11 | 6-12

7-1 |  7-2 |  7-3 |  7-4

7-5 |  7-6 |  7-7 |  7-8

7-9 |  7-10 |  7-11 |  7-12

8-1 | 8-2 | 8-3 | 8-4

8-5 |  8-6/7 | 8-8 | 8-9

8-10 |  8-11 | 8-12

Processing technologies (PRT)

6-1 | 6-2 | 6-3

7-1 | 7-2 | 7-3

8-1/2 | 8-3


Knowledge of design practice DVC 8-3

Design practice focuses on understanding the development of conceptual designs and the creative approaches inherent in undertaking this practice.

Knowledge of design practice includes understanding the ways that designers identify the qualities and potential of design ideas in terms of the broad principles of design (aesthetics and function), and that they are influenced by societal, environmental, historical and technological factors (for example, sustainability, fashion, politics, religion, culture, philosophy).

Learning objective: DVC 8-3 

Students will:

  • demonstrate understanding of approaches to design practice and the nature of designer thinking.

Indicators

  • Critique design ideas in relation to their given context and in comparison with other alternatives.
  • Describe interaction of design elements and how design judgments reconcile the various considerations.
  • Show understanding of specialist knowledge related to the various fields of spatial design.
  • Show understanding of specialist knowledge related to the various fields of product design.

Progression

Initially students learn about how design practice combines and prioritises different design elements and thought processes to initiate and develop ideas in a response to a brief, and how design and design thinking is a tool, which is used to create new solutions to meet the needs of our society.

At level 8:Students demonstrate their understanding of how different design elements are combined and interact within existing examples and practice; how creative strategies can be used for generating and exploring possibilities; and how different considerations can be integrated and reconciled within complex designs in order to meet the broader needs of our society and the global community, for the future.

Teacher guidance

To support students to develop the skills and knowledge at level 8, teachers could for a product brief:

  • provide a student brief with a design context that will engage students’ interests. The design context can be personal to the student, a need of a family member or friend in the context of: furniture, hand held devices, kitchen product, user-friendly products and so on
  • provide exemplars of existing products designs, discuss the visual communication techniques, the materials used, new materials, the ergonomic considerations, sustainable issues, aesthetics, manufacture and so on
  • encourage students to disassemble a product to investigate the exterior form and workings. Get students to investigate joints, fastenings in other products to develop their product knowledge
  • encourage students to work with a client and develop their own product design brief. (This would allow students to have evidence for 3.1: Undertake brief development to address an issue within a determined context)
  • build upon the evidence by selecting the most promising design ideas or combination of ideas
  • discuss with students how they will show evidence/document their exploration/divergent thinking and refinement process (convergent thinking)
  • develop students' visual communication techniques. (For example: Freehand sketching techniques, exploded views, sequential/cutaway views, detail drawings, model making, taking photographs, using digital media, use of display boards and installations to develop students ability and confidence in using them in their own work)
  • encourage students to justify their design thinking, especially the crucial decision-making, through visual communication techniques and annotating. Provide students with sentence starters/appropriate vocabulary to do this
  • allow opportunities for students to critique their own and each other’s work by developing a culture of trust in seeking and listening to advice from others.

Encourage students to:

  • apply graphics practice to produce a portfolio of design work that shows the exploration, refinement, and communication of design ideas for a product design solution
  • explore the opportunities and constraints. Analyse the context fully by researching such things as: aesthetics, ergonomic considerations, present and potential usage, the use of appropriate materials and durability, manufacturing factors. Consider the wider context – legal, ethical, cultural, historical, economic, sustainability, technological factors
  • use photographs, notes, sketches, brainstorming or any other technique to demonstrate their research findings and design thinking concerning the context
  • refine their initial ideas through use of: thumbnails, explorative sketches, thinking sketches, technical detail sketches and presentation sketches
  • carry out research and analysis research findings when evolving design ideas
  • reflect on and critique their design ideas, exploring possibilities and reviewing each idea in order to further explore
  • make designer judgments that integrate product knowledge
  • relate their designs to human dimensions/environmental factors
  • use visual communication techniques to explore and present their design ideas such as freehand sketches, sketch models, drawings, models, photographs, digital media, display boards and installations, refined rendering techniques. (Design sketches, rendering, modeling techniques, digital media, instrumental drawings, and photographs), perspective views, proportion of spaces, position of doors, windows, flow of areas, orientation of layout
  • add annotations to their visuals to further explain design thinking, crucial decision-making throughout their design development, considering both aesthetic and functional considerations, opportunities and constraints. Think about how they can improve ideas, how they can integrate knowledge they have gained from research
  • use product design knowledge, to develop and refine design ideas in an iterative, logical and organised way. This knowledge could come from research throughout the design process on others practice, the users needs, possible construction methods and the materials available. Use knowledge to inform design thinking and will be visually communicated/annotated throughout
  • show through visuals how they have integrated such things as the exterior form, style, inside mechanisms, jointing, fastenings, materials and its intended use
  • show how their designs have evolved into an effective resolved design solution justifying them against the identified opportunities and constraints.

To support students to develop the skills and knowledge at level 8, teachers could for a spatial brief: 

  • provide a student brief with a design context that will engage students’ interests. Design context can be personal to the student, an aspect of family life, a communal space like a school library or sailing club, retail spaces that relate to student hobbies/interests, gardens, urban spaces, buildings for a specific purpose – interior and/or exterior and so on. (The context refers to the environment in which the spatial design is going to be situated)
  • provide exemplars of existing spatial designs, discuss the visual communication techniques, the materials used and so on. Collect examples of display – promotional materials
  • allow students to work with a client and develop their own spatial design brief. (This would allow students to have evidence for 3.1: Undertake brief development to address an issue within a determined context)
  • allow this AS to build upon the evidence required for 3.30: Initiate design ideas through exploration, by selecting the most promising design ideas or combination of ideas
  • consider and discuss with students how they will show evidence/document their exploration/divergent thinking and refinement process (convergent thinking)
  • allow students the time to develop visual communication techniques. Teach freehand sketching techniques, model making, taking photographs, using digital media, use of display boards and installations to develop students ability and confidence in using them in their own work 
  • teach students how to justify their design thinking, especially the crucial decision-making, through visual communication techniques and annotating. Provide students with sentence starters/appropriate vocabulary to do this
  • work with students individually to discuss how they are going to refine their design ideas
  • allow opportunities for students to critique their own and each other’s work by developing a culture of trust in seeking and listening to advice from others. 

Encourage students to: 

  • apply graphics practice to produce a portfolio of design work that shows the exploration, refinement, and communication of design ideas in a spatial design solution
  • explore the opportunities and constraints. Explore the context fully, such as the light, sun paths, topography, position to north, wind patterns, urban factors, access, how people will interact with the building inside and outdoors, investigate existing features (trees, proximity of neighbours, stylistic features, and so on) views, shadows from trees, neighbours property, and so on. Consider the wider context – legal, ethical, cultural, historical, economic, sustainability, technological factors)
  • use photographs, notes, sketches, brainstorming or any other technique to demonstrate their design thinking concerning the context
  • refine ideas: thumbnails, explorative sketches, thinking sketches, technical details, that all work towards to developing a design outcome. (These are clearly evidenced in their portfolios in either 2D or 3D and are informed by research)
  • relate their designs to human dimensions/factors
  • use visual communication techniques to explore and present their design ideas such as freehand sketches, sketch models, drawings, models, photographs, digital media, display boards and installations, refined rendering techniques. Bubble spatial diagrams, floor plans, elevations (measured), perspective views, proportion of spaces, position of doors, windows, flow of areas, orientation of layout
  • add annotations to their visuals to explain design thinking, crucial decision-making throughout their design development, considering both aesthetic and functional considerations, opportunities and constraints. Think about how they can improve ideas, how they can integrate knowledge they have gained from research, showing they have consider the wider environment, how people will interact with the space
  • use spatial design knowledge, (researched throughout), to develop and refine design ideas in an iterative, logical and organised way. This knowledge could come from research throughout the design process on others' practice, the users' needs, possible construction methods and the materials available. Use knowledge to inform design thinking and will be visually communicated/annotated throughout
  • show how their designs have evolved into an effective resolved design solution justifying them against the identified opportunities and constraints.

Contexts for teaching and learning

Students will require:

  • access to product design books and access to appropriate websites
  • access to computer with CAD and design software (SolidWorks, ArchiCAD, Vectorworks, Adobe Photoshop and so on) animations can be used as supporting evidence.

Literacy considerations

  • Design context refers to the environment in which the product design is to be situated. An exploration of the design context includes consideration of the milieu and the environment’s link to various factors, including but not limited to legal, ethical, cultural, historical, economic, and technological factors.
  • The refinement process is the process by which we evolve design ideas to improve the aesthetic and/or functional qualities of the product design. This is informed by such things as research, analysis, making design judgments, reflection, and critique.
  • Product design knowledge includes elements of design ideas approaches, technical knowledge, and visual communication techniques relevant to the specific product design context. These may include but are not limited to:
    • design tools used for the development of product design ideas (such as market research, anthropometrics, ergonomics, mock-ups and models)
    • technical knowledge of materials, joining, fitting, assembly, finish, fasteners, sustainability, and environmental considerations
    • product design visual communication techniques and approaches (such as drawing and rendering, and the use of prototypes, models and animation).

Resources to support student achievement

Books for spatial design thinking

  • Architecture Models Publisher: Page One
  • Presenting Architecture, Essential Techniques: Rikuo Nishimori, Pub: Page One
  • University publications: Auckland Architectural School – Modos (final year work)
  • Massey – Exposure 

Books for product design thinking

Assessment for qualifications

The following achievement standard(s) could assess learning outcomes from this learning objective:

  • AS91627 Design and visual communication 3.30: Initiate design ideas through exploration
  • AS91629 Design and visual communication 3.32: Resolve a spatial design through graphics practice
  • AS91630 Design and visual communication 3.33: Resolve a product design through graphics practice
  • AS91631 Design and visual communication 3.34: Produce working drawings to communicate production details for a complex design

Key messages for DVC standards

Last updated June 8, 2018



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