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Outcome development and evaluation TP 6-3

Achievement standards 1.3 AS91046 & 1.4 AS91047

Outcome development and evaluation involves the creative generation of design ideas leading to the testing and refinement of these into a conceptual design for a potential outcome, and the production and evaluation of the actual outcome.Note that this achievement objective covers conceptual design and prototype development that are assessed by two separate standards 91046 and 91047 respectively. 

Achievement objectives: TP6-3

Students will:

  • critically analyse their own and others’ outcomes to inform the development of ideas for feasible outcomes. 
  • Undertake ongoing experimentation and functional modelling, taking account of stakeholder feedback and trialling in the physical and social environments. 
  • Use the information gained to select, justify, and develop a final outcome. 
  • Evaluate this outcome’s fitness for purpose against the brief and justify the evaluation using feedback from stakeholders.

Indicators

Students can:

  • generate design ideas that are informed by research and the critical analysis of existing outcomes
  • undertake functional modelling to refine design ideas and enhance their ability to address the specifications
  • evaluate design ideas in terms of their ability to support the development of a conceptual design for a feasible outcome
  • evaluate the conceptual design against the specifications to determine the proposed outcomes potential fitness for purpose
  • evaluate suitability of materials/components, based on their performance properties, to select those
  • appropriate for use in the production of a feasible outcome
  • produce and trial a prototype of the outcome to evaluate its fitness for purpose and identify any changes that would enhance the outcome
  • use stakeholder feedback to support and justify key design decisions and evaluations of fitness for purpose.

Progression

Prior to level 6 stsudents generate design ideas informed by research and analysis of exisying outcomes and develop their ideas through modelling to develop a prototype that can be evalaued as fit for purpose. At level 6, students can generate design ideas, undertake functional modelling, evaluate through critical analysis the design ideas and develop conceptual designs which are evaluated to determine potential fitness for purpose. They can evaluate suitablity of materials, produce and trial a prototype, and evaluate the fitness for purpose of the prototype using stakeholder feedback to support and justify design decisions.

The Teacher Guidance section provides information that supports teachers scaffolding of learning from levels 1-8 of the curriculum. This allows for differentiation of a programme of learning.

The deliberate use of provide, guide, and support in this section signals that as students' capacity for self-management increases, teachers progressively reduce the level of scaffolding provided.

  • Provide – the teacher should take full responsibility for introducing and explicitly teaching new knowledge, skills or practices.
  • Guide – the students have a level of understanding and competency on which they can draw but the teacher remains primarily responsible for continuing to develop these.
  • Support – the students take primary responsibility for their own learning, drawing on all their previous experiences to consolidate and extend their understanding. The teacher is supportive rather than directive.
  • The Teacher Guidance also uses the term ensure to indicate when the teacher plays a monitoring role to check that conditions critical for learning are present.

Teacher guidance

To support students to undertake outcome development and evaluation at level six teachers could:

  • ensure that there is a brief with clear specifications against which a developed outcome can be evaluated
  • establish an environment that supports student innovation and encourages critical analysis of existing outcomes
  • support students to develop drawing and modeling skills to communicate and explore design ideas. Emphasis should be on progressing 2D and 3D drawing skills and increasing the range and complexity of functional modelling
  • support students to explore a range of materials/ components and to develop the necessary knowledge and skills to evaluate and use them
  • support students to undertake prototyping to evaluate the outcome’s fitness for purpose and identify any further development requirements
  • support students to gain targeted stakeholder feedback.

Contexts for teaching and learning

  • This achievement objective "Outcome development and evaluation" covers both the process of developing a conceptual design to address a brief, and the process of developing and trialling a prototype to address a brief.
  • Allow students to choose projects that interest them and engage them. At level six teachers can set the context for learning and the issue to be addressed. Teachers can even provide the brief (unless brief development is being assessed). However teachers are encouraged to negotiate these things with the students so the project work can be authentic and meaningful for students.
  • As an objective within the Technological Practice strand of the curriculum it is expected that students will be engaged in a process where they need to do such things as make decisions, test and trial ideas, interact with stakeholders, undertake research, use functional modelling. If students are just "making", or doing a simple "design and make" project, or a following a set of teacher instructions without needing to make their own decisions then they are unlikely to be meeting the requirements of this achievement objective.
  • This achievement objective is about "doing" but has strong links to other objectives and it can be useful to consider the teaching and learning related to outcome development and evaluations as a related package. There are clear links to Technological Modelling (see TK6-1), Technological Products (see TK6-2), Characteristics of Technological Outcomes (see NT6-2), and Knowledge of Design (see DET6-1). Teachers should think about the overall programme of learning and how the objectives link, and how project work can contribute to evidence for external assessment.
  • Provide a suitable teaching and learning programme that fosters creativity and innovation, and allows students to develop solutions to real problems. It cannot be assumed that students know how to generate design ideas, or how to be creative and innovative. This needs to be taught and practiced within the teaching and learning programme. See the links on ideation below, and further information on generating design ideas can be found in the Design and Visual Communication section of this guide (see DVC6-1 and DVC6-2).
  • As the process of outcome development and evaluation from brief to completed outcome can be very time consuming it is not always possible to give students a practice prior to assessment. However it is essential that parts of the process are deliberately taught and students have the opportunity to practice parts of the process prior to the main project that they will be assessed on. For example teach and practice the process of determining the potential fitness for purpose of a conceptual design, or teach and practice the process of trialling to inform the selection of materials, or teach and practice the analysis of existing outcomes.
  • Time management is critical in outcome development and evaluation as the complete process from brief to finished outcome can be spread over a long period of time. Teachers should give students strategies for managing their time and ensuring they meet various check points and final deadlines. Teachers need to schedule regular progress checkpoints with students to monitor student progress and ensure appropriate progress is being made. A careful balance needs to be maintained as in some standards the students are assessed on whether or not they can work independently so the teacher cannot be leading them step-by-step through a process in order to keep them to time.
  • Functional modelling is an essential part of developing a conceptual design so this needs to be built into the teaching and learning programme. Support students to develop a sound understanding of functional modelling and how evidence from functional modelling can be used to inform decision making. Students should understand functional modelling is undertaken to gather evidence on all aspects of the outcome including its likely technical feasibility and acceptability (social and environmental). For more information on functional modelling refer to the Technological Modelling section of this guide (see TK6-1).
  • Interacting with stakeholders and obtaining stakeholder feedback is expected throughout the outcome development and evaluation process. Teachers need to ensure that students have projects with suitable stakeholders who are accessible to students and willing to work with students to provide stakeholder feedback. Students need strategies for ways to interact and obtain feedback from stakeholders, and will need guidance on what are the appropriate times in a project to be seeking stakeholder feedback. Teachers should ensure students know how to communicate with stakeholders in an appropriate manner.
  • Support students with strategies to keep a record of the development of the conceptual design and/or the prototype in a way that is authentic but does not become documentation for documentations sake. Explore the use of photos, diagrams, annotations, screen shots, and the use of various digital tools to collect evidence.
  • A prototype is developed through technological practice and is reflective of accepted techniques and tolerances, and safety and legal responsibilities. This means that as part of the teaching and learning programme these things must be covered; i.e what are the accepted techniques and tolerances for this type of work? What are the safety and legal responsibilities of this type of work? This will obviously differ depending on the context as accepted tolerances and safety considerations for welding will be completely different to when developing a food product.
  • When developing the outcome teachers will need to support students to work in a safe manner that is aligned to current codes of practice and Health and Safety guidelines. Ensure all practical work is carried out in accordance with the recommendations contained in Safety in Technology Education: A Guidance Manual for New Zealand Schools.

Literacy considerations

Students may need support to confidently communicate in writing (or other means) the language associated with the process of developing and evaluating conceptual designs and prototypes:

  • A conceptual design clearly communicates a proposed technological outcome that has the potential to address the brief. It is a detailed description of how the outcome would look and function. Conceptual designs can be presented using a variety of techniques which may include but are not limited to: freehand sketches, diagrams, technical drawings, scale models, computer simulations, interactive PDF’s, and written descriptions, details of materials, and components and/or assembly instructions.
  • Functional modelling will also be used to explore and evaluate developing design ideas. Functional modelling is undertaken to gather evidence on all aspects of the outcome including its likely technical feasibility and social acceptability
  • Potential fitness for purpose of the conceptual design refers to the likelihood of the outcome to address the requirements of the brief. Note the brief must allow for the development of a range of outcomes and can be teacher or student directed.
  • A Prototype is a finished outcome that is ready to be trialled in situ.It is developed through technological practice and is reflective of accepted techniques and tolerances, and safety and legal responsibilities.
  • Prototyping is the trialling of the prototype to gain evidence for the evaluation of the outcome’s fitness for purpose in its intended physical and social environment.
  • Physical environment refers to the place where the final outcome will be situated.
  • Social environment refers to those who will interact with the final outcome.
  • Fitness for purpose refers to the outcome’s ability to address its brief when situated in its intended location. Judgements about fitness for purpose may include considerations of the outcome’s technical feasibility and acceptability (social and environmental).

Resources to support teaching and learning

Case studies relating to conceptual design

Resources on ideation

Assessment for qualifications

Note: This Achievement objective covers conceptual design and prototype development that is assessed in two different standards 1.3 and 1.4 respectively:

Last updated May 29, 2018



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