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AOs/LOs by level

Technological practice (TP)

6-1 | 6-2 | 6-3

7-1 | 7-2 | 7-3

8-1 | 8-2 | 8-3

Technological knowledge (TK)

6-1 | 6-2 | 6-3

7-1 | 7-2 | 7-3

8-1 | 8-2 | 8-3

Nature of technology (NT)

6-1 | 6-2

7-1 | 7-2

8-1 | 8-2

Design in technology (DET)

6-1 | 6-2

7-1 | 7-2

8-1/2

Manufacturing (MFG)

6-1 | 6-2

7-1 | 7-2

8-1/2

Technical areas (TCA)

8-1 

Construction and mechanical technologies (CMT)

6-1 | 6-2 | 6-3 | 6-4

6-5 | 6-6 | 6-7

7-1 |  7-2 |  7-3 |  7-4

7-5 |  7-6 |  7-7

8-1 | 8-2 | 8-3 | 8-4

8-5 | 8-6 | 8-7

Design and visual communication (DVC)

6-1 | 6-2 | 6-3

7-1 | 7-2 | 7-3

8-1 | 8-2 | 8-3

Digital technologies (DTG)

6-1 | 6-2 | 6-3 | 6-4

6-5 | 6-6 | 6-7 | 6-8

6-9 | 6-10 | 6-11 | 6-12

7-1 |  7-2 |  7-3 |  7-4

7-5 |  7-6 |  7-7 |  7-8

7-9 |  7-10 |  7-11 |  7-12

8-1 | 8-2 | 8-3 | 8-4

8-5 |  8-6/7 | 8-8 | 8-9

8-10 |  8-11 | 8-12

Processing technologies (PRT)

6-1 | 6-2 | 6-3

7-1 | 7-2 | 7-3

8-1/2 | 8-3


Knowledge of product preservation, packaging and storage PRT 7-3

Achievement standard 2.62 AS91353

Product preservation, packaging and storage focuses on the ways in which products can be treated during and after their development in order to maintain their integrity over time by inhibiting internal degradation and/or protecting them from external damage.

Learning objective: PRT 7-3

Students will:

  • demonstrate understanding of advanced concepts and techniques used in the preservation, packaging and storage of products.

Indicators

Students can:

  • explain the links between combinations of decay mechanisms in preservation and packaging techniques
  • compare and contrast preservation and packaging techniques for a product in a national environment
  • discuss why labelling is legally required and how labelling for marketing is used in a national environment.

Progression

At level 6, students will have learnt about basic concepts relating to why certain types of products require the use of preservation techniques, and which techniques are suitable for use in domestic settings where the product planned to be used in the near future (and storage) will be within known environmental conditions. They will also know how packaging and storage procedures work together to further protect products in local environments. 

At level 7, students progress to learning more advanced concepts relating to ensuring products maintain integrity over an extended time and the variable environmental conditions of a national market. Students should also move to demonstrate their understanding of advanced techniques, such as preservation techniques (for example, spray drying of liquids, ultra violet reaction inhibition, liquid immersion freezing and chilling, chemical additives), and packaging (for example, canning, retortable pouches, gas flush packages, permeable packaging films, sealing mechanisms, portion control, labelling for point of difference – eco, heart ticks), and storage procedures (for example, controlled atmosphere) commonly used in industrial situations and within a national market.

Teacher guidance

To support students to develop understandings about advanced concepts and techniques used in the preservation, packaging and storage of products, at level 7, teachers could:

  • provide opportunity for students to explore a range of different types of products to understand the changes needed in the preservation/packaging/storage decision-making to ensure products are able to withstand changing environments over extended times (for example, preservation during transportation, storage in warehouses, packaging for safe handling)
  • guide students to develop understanding of how preserving/packaging and storage work together to ensure products maintain integrity over extended times and variable physical environments 
  • provide students the opportunity to explore and debate the implications of, and for, the distribution of products to national markets on the preservation, packaging, and storage of products 
  • provide opportunities for students to become familiar with a wide range of advanced preservation techniques (for example, spray drying of liquids, ultra violet reaction inhibition, liquid immersion freezing and chilling, chemical additives) and packaging (for example, canning, retortable pouches, gas flush packages, permeable packaging films, sealing mechanisms, portion control, labelling for point of difference – eco, heart ticks), and storage procedures (for example, controlled atmosphere) commonly used in industrial situations
  • provide students with opportunities to explore advanced techniques being used currently in a range of industries – this would include understanding the properties and implications of the materials used in the product and what is required of the product in terms of ensuring particular shelf-life and withstanding variable environmental conditions.

Contexts for teaching and learning

Learning about advanced concepts and techniques used in the preservation, packaging, and storage of products can be incorporated into a teaching and learning programme where students process a specified product to meet a brief (refer to PRT 7-1) and link to demonstrating understanding of advanced concepts in processing ( PRT 7-2). This objective and subsequent assessment is about demonstrating understanding and knowledge of advanced concepts and techniques used in the preservation, packaging, and storage of products while not engaging in the use of these concepts and techniques within the classroom.

Students should be exploring a wide range of advanced concepts during their learning experiences. This can be achieved by:

  • visiting production and manufacturing plants and factories
  • using video clips
  • working with Furutreintech ambassadors
  • interviewing (in real time or via Skype) with practicing technologists and industry experts
  • research via the Internet and hard copy materials
  • exploring packaging and labelling in the classroom using a range of products preserved and packaged in different ways
  • research activities could include a visit to food product manufacturers in your region, or visits from a food technologist (see Futureintech Ambassadors).

Encourage students to use examples that relate to products that are preserved, packaged, and stored that have been processed using advanced concepts and have a variety of packaging and labelling examples. Students also need to have a clear understanding of the causes of decay in the specific products being explored; these are things such as microbiological growth, separation, loss of colour, loss or gain of moisture, loss of viability, loss of nutritional content, quality loss due to enzymatic action, vibration, and shock and crushing during transport and handling.

Labelling requirements of process products is a key part of this objective and are those that include, but are not limited to, those standards required to meet national regulations, such as those set by Food Standards Australia New Zealand (FSANZ) or the Standard Association of New Zealand.

Therefore, prior to assessment, students need to engage in learning experiences that support developing their knowledge and understanding of:

  • the preservation and packaging techniques chosen for storage in a national environment, to control decay in these products (for example, freeze drying, heat sterilisation, decreasing water activity, ultra- high radiation, vacuum packing, fermenting)
  • the different types of decay that typically occur in the selected products (for example, what happens to the quality of milk once it is packaged and stored at room temperature and distributed to a supermarket and why?)
  • the reasons why these techniques are effective (for example, what preservation and packaging methods prevent various kinds of deterioration and types of decay, and why?)
  • the legal requirements for labelling these preserved products for use in national environments and the reasons for the legal requirements in the national environment
  • the reasons for the use of labelling for marketing in a national environment.

Students will research and synthesise information to present a report or presentation. The presentation could be in the form of a slide show, display board, portfolio, or written report, and could include annotated flow diagrams with written discussion, photographs and drawings. This presentation/report must clearly communicate the following:

  • Why advanced concepts in preservation are used to maintain the integrity of specific products.
  • How, and explains why, each preservation mechanism works and how it contributes to overall product integrity.

Evidence needs to include such things as photographs with annotations, written discussions, diagrams and tables.

Literacy considerations

Support students to:

  • research and access credible information, including materials from a range of sources
  • investigate the range of products that include preservation mechanisms in their manufacture
  • synthesise a range of factual information into clear presentations that address the criteria of the standard
  • structure a technical report detailing the concepts outlined above 
  • understand how to structure descriptions, explanations and comparative writing (comparing and contrasting preservation and packaging techniques for a product in a national environment, and discussing why labelling is legally required and how labelling for marketing is used in a national environment)
  • understand the differences between describe, explain, and discuss.

Students will need to develop the skills such as:

  • Researching and processing information
  • Report writing
  • Annotation of diagrams and development of sequencing
  • Referencing 

Students will need to be supported in their understanding of how describe, explain, and discuss can be exemplified when collecting their evidence for assessment. To be successful, students will need to understand the assessment language of describe, explain and discussNote the following definitions:

  • to identify is to state an idea
  • to describe is a statement that gives details about the outcome or idea
  • to explain is to describe in detail with reasons – often including the how and why
  • to discuss requires an explanation that is comprehensive, detailed, broad and shows evidence of some complexity in thinking. It may be a reasoned argument presenting a particular point of view, a comparison and contrast between two ideas or concepts, or it may be  a detailed reasoning and relationship between several complex ideas.

The use of writing frames and structures or templates can be used judiciously to support this. Care must be taken not to over template writing forms, which may not allow students to achieve against the criteria.

Key terms and definitions

  • Preservation techniques may include but are not limited to: freeze drying, heat sterilisation, decreasing water activity, ultra-violet irradiation, vacuum packing, and fermenting.
  • Packaging techniques may include but are not limited to: co-extruded barrier films, gable-top cartons, PET bottles, bag in box, cans and retort pouches, cardboard cartons, pallets, bulk packaging, and intermediate bulk containers.
  • Products may include but are not limited to: fermented and non-fermented foods and beverages, fresh horticultural products, biologically active products, composts, household chemicals, and toiletries and cosmetics.
  • Types of decay include but are not limited to: microbiological growth, separation, loss of colour, loss or gain of moisture, loss of viability, loss of nutritional content, quality loss due to enzymatic action, vibration, and shock and crushing during transport and handling.
  • National environments refer to a sequence of locations and transport modes within a country. For example, a carton of biscuits that moves through a supply chain from factory through retail outlet to end user.
  • Legal labelling requirements may include but are not limited to the standards required to meet national regulations, such as those set by Food Standards Australia New Zealand (FSANZ).
  • Marketing requirements for packaging and labelling may include but are not limited to: product recognition, brand name and communication of product values and image, and promotion of product claims and point of difference (for example, eco, heart tick).

Students could gather and analyse their evidence independently or in groups, but need to write their presentations independently.

Resources to support teaching and learning

Case study material

Standards associations

Websites relating to food, health and workplace safety

Books

  • Brown, A. (2007). Understanding Food – Principles and Preparation, 4th Edition. Brooks/Cole.
  • Campbell-Platt, G. (ed). (2009). Food Science and Technology. Wiley Blackwell.
  • Chambers IV, E and Wolf, MB 1996, Sensory Testing Methods, United States.
  • Hallam, E 2005, Understanding Industrial Practices, Nelson Thornes, United Kingdom.
  • Hutton, T 2001, Key Topics in Food Science and Technology No 3, Food Manufacturing: an overview, Campden and Chorleywood Food Research Association Group.
  • Hutton, T. (2001). Food Manufacturing: An Overview (Key topics in Food Science and Technology No 4). Campden & Chorleywood Food Research Association.
  • Hutton, T. (2002). Food Packaging: An Introduction (Key topics in Food Science and Technology No 7). Campden & Chorleywood Food Research Association.
  • Hutton, T. (2005). Food Preservation: An Introduction (Key topics in Food Science and Technology No 9). Campden & Chorleywood Food Research Association.
  • Lyon, D Francombe, M Hasdell, T and Lawson, K 1994, Guidelines for Sensory Analysis in Food Product Development and Quality Control, Chapman and Hall, London, United Kingdom.
  • Murano, P 2002, Understanding Food Science and Technology, Brooks Cole, United States.
  • Resurreccion, A 1998, Consumer Sensory Testing for Product Development, Aspen Publishers, United States.
  • Smith, K Cantry, Y and Ward, L 2000, Oxford Food Technology Study Dictionary, Oxford University Press, United Kingdom.
  • Research activities could include a visit to food product manufacturers in your region, or visits from a food technologist (see Futureintech Ambassadors)

Assessment for qualifications

The following achievement standard(s) could assess learning outcomes from this learning objective:

  • AS91353 Processing technologies 2.62: Demonstrate understanding of advanced concepts used in preservation and packaging techniques for product storage

Key messages from the standard

This standard requires students to demonstrate their understanding of the relationship between preservation, packaging, and decay of products. This includes describing the legal and marketing requirements for labelling within a national market. In this standard, students must explain the relationship between preservation and packaging techniques and the types of decay, and explain why a particular combination of preservation and packaging techniques was chosen for storage in a national environment. They must also be able to discuss using the compare and contrast model the preservation and packaging techniques for a product in a national environment. This means investigating different ways of preserving and packaging items in a variety of ways.

Students must demonstrate their understanding of:

  • techniques that can be used to preserve and package products for storage and distribution in the national environment
  • how best to preserve and package a specific product for storage and distribution in a national environment
  • labelling for legal and marketing reasons in a product for distribution in a national environment 
  • the multiple techniques that can be used to preserve products and to package them for storage in a national environment
  • descriptions of the different types of decay that affect a range of products (naming the groups of micro-organisms that cause decay, for example, mould and bacteria, but not necessarily the actual micro-organisms)
  • the links between specific preservation techniques and different types of decay
  • the conditions in which common micro-organisms grow and explain ways of controlling the storage and distribution environment to limit the decay within a range of products for national distribution
  • the legal requirements for labelling in the national environment and a discussion of why legal labelling is required in a national environment
  • how labelling is used for marketing purposes in a national environment
  • how to preserve, package, and store one specific product to maintain the product’s integrity in a national environment
  • a range of preservation and packaging techniques for preserving and/or packaging one specific product to be stored in the national environment (compare and contrast)
  • why a particular technique for preserving and/or packaging was chosen for one specific product to be stored in a national environment.

Note: The preservation, packaging, and storage requirements of a specific product in a national environment MUST be fully addressed. Explanatory note 7 explains what is meant by a national environment and gives an example. To access higher grades, a qualitative step up in understandings is required. Descriptions enable a student to achieve this standard. To attain merit, explanations are required, and a student at excellence will be discussing/showing their comprehensive understanding.

Resources to support student achievement

Last updated September 28, 2018



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