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Curriculum strands

Specialist strands

AOs/LOs by level

Technological practice (TP)

6-1 | 6-2 | 6-3

7-1 | 7-2 | 7-3

8-1 | 8-2 | 8-3

Technological knowledge (TK)

6-1 | 6-2 | 6-3

7-1 | 7-2 | 7-3

8-1 | 8-2 | 8-3

Nature of technology (NT)

6-1 | 6-2

7-1 | 7-2

8-1 | 8-2

Design in technology (DET)

6-1 | 6-2

7-1 | 7-2


Manufacturing (MFG)

6-1 | 6-2

7-1 | 7-2


Technical areas (TCA)


Construction and mechanical technologies (CMT)

6-1 | 6-2 | 6-3 | 6-4

6-5 | 6-6 | 6-7

7-1 |  7-2 |  7-3 |  7-4

7-5 |  7-6 |  7-7

8-1 | 8-2 | 8-3 | 8-4

8-5 | 8-6 | 8-7

Design and visual communication (DVC)

6-1 | 6-2 | 6-3

7-1 | 7-2 | 7-3

8-1 | 8-2 | 8-3

Digital technologies (DTG)

6-1 | 6-2 | 6-3 | 6-4

6-5 | 6-6 | 6-7 | 6-8

6-9 | 6-10 | 6-11 | 6-12

7-1 |  7-2 |  7-3 |  7-4

7-5 |  7-6 |  7-7 |  7-8

7-9 |  7-10 |  7-11 |  7-12

8-1 | 8-2 | 8-3 | 8-4

8-5 |  8-6/7 | 8-8 | 8-9

8-10 |  8-11 | 8-12

Processing technologies (PRT)

6-1 | 6-2 | 6-3

7-1 | 7-2 | 7-3

8-1/2 | 8-3

Knowledge of resistant materials construction CMT 7-3

Achievement standard 2.22 AS91347

Resistant materials refer to a group of materials that are grouped together because they show certain common characteristics. These characteristics include tensile strength, compressive resistance, hardness, malleability, ductility, elasticity, grain.

Such materials are broadly categorised as wood, metal, ceramics, plastics, glass and their composites. Particular resistant materials exhibit characteristics to a greater or lesser extent. Resistant materials are often sub categorised; for example, hardwood and softwood, thermosetting and thermoplastics, alloys and pure metals.

Resistant materials require particular basic techniques to be used to enable materials to be measured, cut, shaped, joined, and finished when making products. Advanced techniques are required to craft special features of a high standard in a product and rely on the consistent application of accepted conventions to achieve a desired effect. Special features can be structural and/or aesthetic and include such things as: inlays, special fit (for example, interference, push fit), matching turned components, internal screw cutting on a lathe, compound machining, and glass fusing. Knowledge within this component includes understanding how resistant materials are characterised, and understanding techniques used to work them. Understanding of techniques would include: how it is done in a safe and effective manner; the impact of the technique on materials involved; and when the technique would be suitable to use.

Achievement objective: CMT 7-3

Students will:

  • demonstrate understanding of advanced techniques used to make resistant materials products.


Students can:

  • discuss how accepted conventions guide constructing in materials in similar contexts
  • explain the differences between safe practice in classroom and industrial environments
  • discuss how accepted conventions guide constructing with materials in diverse contexts.


Initially at level 6, students learn about resistant materials per se, the basic techniques commonly used to work them, and the relationship between these. At level 7, students progress to learning about advanced techniques and conventions required for highly crafted special features.

Teacher guidance

To support students to develop understandings about the advanced techniques used to make products from resistant or any other material type at level 7, teachers could:

  • provide opportunity for students to explore accepted conventions used when constructing products using resistant or any other material type, and discuss how these conventions guide construction in similar and diverse contexts (examples of accepted conventions include: drape, flush, parallel, perpendicular, offset, symmetry, array, tolerance, ease, press fit, clearances, taper, level, plumb)
  • guide students to explore similarities and differences between safe practice in classroom and in industrial environments.

Contexts for teaching and learning

Learning about advanced concepts to make products can be incorporated into a teaching and learning programme where students make a specified product to meet a brief (refer to CMT 7-1). This objective and subsequent assessment is about demonstrating understanding and knowledge of advanced concepts to make a product while not necessarily making a specified product.

When students are developing understanding of the accepted conventions that are used when making products, they should be exposed to accepted standards and methods. This can be done through demonstration, interviews or videos of practicing technologists, or industry visits.

When explaining safe practices, students should cover:

  • strategies to manage the safety of those in the workspace
  • the responsibilities (both legal and ethical) of students/employees
  • the teacher's/employer's reporting systems and liability.

Diverse contexts refer to the wider physical and social environment, including the scale of the project. Diverse situations might include:

  • the home/class workshop where smallish products are made
  • the building industry where floors/foundations are laid or precast walls go up
  • an engineering environment where hydro dams or under sea tunnels are constructed.

It may be easier for some students to show their understanding after they have made a product. These final understandings might be informed by some initial investigations before the product is made. Not having made a product does not exclude a student from achieving this objective, but it is expected that students will require access to materials to demonstrate how accepted conventions are achieved. This might include, for example, materials used to make a product, to reinforce it, and to achieve particular finishes. Other materials may be required to demonstrate different conventions applied in similar and diverse contexts. Students will more than likely also need to explore a range of existing products in order to discuss the materials and techniques used to achieve particular quality features.

Literacy considerations

  • To be successful, students will need to understand the assessment language of describe, explain and discuss. Note the following definitions:
    • to identify is to state an idea
    • to describe is a statement that gives details about the outcome or idea
    • to explain is to describe in detail with reasons – often including the how and why
    • to discuss requires an explanation that is comprehensive, detailed, broad and shows evidence of some complexity in thinking. It may be a reasoned argument presenting a particular point of view, a comparison and contrast between two ideas or concepts, or it may be a detailed reasoning and relationship between several complex ideas.
  • Students will need to be supported in their understanding of how describe, explain, and discuss look when collecting their evidence for assessment and writing (frames and structures or templates can be used judiciously to support this). Care must be taken not to over template writing forms, which may not allow students to achieve against the criteria.

Students will need to understand the following key terms:

  • Advanced concepts are the accepted conventions used in established practice when constructing products, and may relate to such things as: drape, flush, parallel, perpendicular, offset, symmetry, array, tolerance, ease, press fit, clearances, taper, level, and plumb.
  • Products can be made from a range of materials. These materials may include but are not limited to: wood, composites, metal, alloys, ceramics, plastics, glass, natural and synthetic fibres, yarns, fabrics, leather, and vinyl.
  • Health and safety practice includes strategies to manage the safety, responsibility for this, reporting systems, liabilities, monitoring for exposures and safe practice.
  • Diverse contexts are ones that change the nature of the function or the setting in which it is to be used (for example, a chair for the home as opposed to a chair for the office – or an indoor chair versus an outdoor one). Note that the material is NOT the context (but changing the context may mean the material has to change).

Resources to support teaching and learning

Technology Online case study material

Health and safety procedures


  • New Zealand Standards of relevance to the product constructed and its associated industry codes
  • Health and Safety in Employment Act (1992) and its amendments (2003)

Assessment for qualifications

The following achievement standard(s) could assess learning outcomes from this learning objective:

  • AS91347 Construction and mechanical technologies 2.22 – Demonstrate understanding of advanced concepts used to make products

Key messages from the standard

Students will be required to demonstrate their understanding of advanced concepts by recording evidence in some form related to the conventions used, the construction of the products selected, the safety issues related to the construction in a school and industrial environment.

Students are required to investigate:

  • Conventions used when constructing a product, how these are achieved through use of tools, techniques and materials, and how these support construction in a context. 
  • Strategies used to manage safety in school workshops (safe practice in the classroom and industrial settings). 
  • Evidence for assessment may come from a variety of sources and activities. Students will need guidance on what constitutes evidence, how they are to organise and annotate the evidence they gather, and present it (for example, as a hard copy in a portfolio, digitally, or as a combination of the two). Teachers will need to ensure that the range and depth of evidence the students provide covers the requirements of the standard.

This evidence may be collected as part of targeted teaching and learning or collected throughout the year as part of a whole programme.

Evidence can be drawn from a range of sources:

  • Photographs and/or drawings including annotations describing the accepted conventions followed when constructing the product.
  • Photographs or photocopies of safe practices followed during construction with annotations stating how this practice exemplifies common approaches to managing safety in school workshops.
  • A written analysis of the connections between the conventions used and the tools and techniques used to follow the conventions in similar contexts (for example, other pieces of furniture made/constructed) and diverse contexts (for example, musical instruments, boats).
  • A written explanation of the similarities and differences between the safety practices in school workshops and industrial construction (for example, joinery) and mechanical (for example, engineering workshop) environments.

Creating the report is an individual activity, but students may carry out the investigation either independently or with a partner or group.

Resources to support student achievement

Last updated June 8, 2018