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Implement a multi-unit manufacturing process MFG 6-2

Achievement Standard 1.13, AS 91056

Implement a multi-unit manufacturing process focuses on the application of underpinning concepts and techniques in the multi-unit manufacturing of goods.

Initially students will use a defined technological outcome suitable for manufacture that has established manufacturing specifications. They will determine and implement the manufacturing system by considering the type of outcome, the resources and the techniques to be used. Students progress towards the incorporation of quality management and quality control procedures in the development and implementation of a ‘green’ manufacturing process.

Learning Objective: MFG 6-2

Students will:

  • Implement a multi-unit manufacturing process


Students can:

  • Identify a manufacturing process suitable for multi-unit manufacture of the 
technological outcome
  • implement the manufacturing process by using selected resources and 
carrying out techniques in keeping with accepted practices, including safety 
and legal requirements 

  • use feedback from quality control to review and modify the manufacturing 
process, leading to an improvement in the proportion of units meeting the specifications. 


Prior to level 6 students could explore developing small batch production lines and the concepts of health and safety, quality control and means of specialization. 

At level 6, students will use a defined technological outcome that has already been deemed suitable for manufacture and that has established manufacturing specifications.

The Teacher Guidance section provides information that supports teachers scaffolding of learning from levels 1-8 of the curriculum. This allows for differentiation of a programme of learning.

The deliberate use of provide, guide, and support in this section signals that as students' capacity for self-management increases, teachers progressively reduce the level of scaffolding provided.

  • Provide – the teacher should take full responsibility for introducing and explicitly teaching new knowledge, skills or practices.
  • Guide – the students have a level of understanding and competency on which they can draw but the teacher remains primarily responsible for continuing to develop these.
  • Support – the students take primary responsibility for their own learning, drawing on all their previous experiences to consolidate and extend their understanding. The teacher is supportive rather than directive.
  • The Teacher Guidance also uses the term ensure to indicate when the teacher plays a monitoring role to check that conditions critical for learning are present.

Teacher Guidance

To support students to develop and implement an effective manufacturing process at level 6, teachers could:

  • Provide opportunity for students to consider a range of manufacturing 
processes to explore relationships between the type of outcome and the 
resources and techniques selected. 

  • Provide students with a defined technological outcome suitable for 
manufacture that has established manufacturing specifications. 

  • Support students with their application of techniques used in their selected multi-unit manufacturing processes. 

Contexts for teaching and learning

This learning objective is about implementing a manufacturing process. However within a programme of work it is possible to link these skills with knowledge about manufacturing – refer to learning objective MFG 6-1 Demonstrate understanding of basic manufacturing concepts and techniques. 

Students should be exposed to other manufacturing processes before they attempt to implement their own. This could be through such things as case studies, guest speakers, site visits, or videos. Refer to the links below for some possible case studies or other Internet resources related to manufacturing.

Manufacturing can be incorporated into a teaching and learning programme either as a stand-alone activity or as a continuation from a project where students have already designed and developed a prototype. Either approach is appropriate. If it is as a stand-alone activity then students start by investigating an outcome to determine its suitability for manufacture – the outcome being one they have had nothing to do with the design or development of up until this point. If it is a continuation of another project the starting point is to investigate the suitability for manufacture of an outcome that they have previously designed and/or developed as a prototype. 

After determining the suitability of an outcome for manufacture (or making design changes if necessary to make it suitable for manufacture) students need to establish specifications and tolerances required. Teachers will need to decide how within the time constraints of the overall programme they can give students opportunities to practice this and other aspects of implementing a manufacturing process before starting on the process they are to be assessed on. In an ideal situation students will learn about and practice implementing a manufacturing process for one outcome, and then move onto another outcome for assessment purposes.

Students will need to be taught possible ways to record the manufacturing process they develop such as flow charts, and feedback loops, and supported to explore any other suitable ways the process could be done.

Students will also need to explore how to record evidence of on-going testing during production / test results of end samples.

Teachers should be familiar with ‘Safety in Technology Education: A Guidance Manual for New Zealand Schools’ and the implications of the relevant sections when it comes to students implementing their manufacturing process.

Literacy considerations

Support students to understand the generic vocabulary of manufacturing including such things as quality control, tolerances, and feedback.

In addition there will be specialist language dependent on the context of the manufacturing process that students will need to be familiar with; for example the specialised language associated with manufacturing feta cheese will be different to the language associated with furniture manufacturing.

Students will need strategies for clearly communicating their manufacturing process so any other people involved in the process are clear on how to implement their part of the process and the expected specification and tolerances. This may include the use of flow diagrams. 

Resources to support teaching and learning

Case studies 

Assessment for qualifications

The following achievement standard(s) could assess learning outcomes from this learning objective:

  • AS 91056 Generic Technology 1.13: Implement a multi unit manufacturing process

This implement standard has a focus on students producing multiple outcomes to a specified standard and within agreed tolerances.

Students are required to identify a manufacturing process that is suitable for the multi-unit production of a technological outcome, therefore teachers should ensure that the outcome is suitable for manufacturing, and that there is a clear set of manufacturing specifications.

Students do not have to produce units of their chosen technological outcome on their own. The selection of resources, therefore, may include employing a labour force, checking their skills, and providing any necessary training.

Two approaches are possible when using this standard for assessment:

  1. The students are given the manufacturing specifications for a product that can be manufactured in multiple units (such as a skirt for students to wear when representing the school) and all then identify and implement a process to produce multiple units of this product.
    The teacher may create the manufacturing specifications for this product in discussion with the class and/or may allow individual students to negotiate a variation of these specifications. The specifications can also be negotiated with the end user and confirmed by the teacher.
  2. The students have been engaged in technological practice and are at the point where they have fully established the manufacturing specifications for their outcome and are ready to implement the manufacturing process.

In either case, ensure that:

  • the specified products provide sufficient scope for the students to meet the requirements of the standard and to modify the manufacturing process in response to quality control checks
  • the work environment includes the tools and materials that the students and/or their work forces need in order to work safely to manufacture their products
  • the manufacturing specifications are established, for example, in the form of a garment specification sheet that details the type of construction, sizes, and materials (see Student Resource A)
  • you provide guidance on quality control strategies to enable the product to be constructed accurately and meet specifications
  • you conference with the students and support them during the manufacturing of the product (for example, for events that occur with machinery that may not be part of the task).

Key messages from the standard

A manufacturing process enables the multi-unit production of a technological outcome.  Selection of an appropriate manufacturing process requires students to consider the type of outcome, the resources and techniques to be used.

Students will use a defined technological outcome suitable for manufacture that has established manufacturing specifications

The starting point for this standard is that students should analyse a technological outcome to determine its suitability for manufacture. Students should not be presented with an outcome that has already been deemed suitable for manufacture and just be asked to implement the manufacturing process for that outcome. Students may need to make design modifications to the outcome to make it suitable for manufacture and/or may need to consider more than one outcome to determine one that is suitable for manufacture.

Determining the suitability of a technological outcome for manufacture includes consideration of:

  • methods of construction or processing to be used
  • the materials, ingredients, and/or components to be used
  • qualities that need to be preserved (for example function, aesthetics, ergonomics, cost, components)
  • resource availability (for example labour, materials, components)
  • broader factors (for example legal, social, cultural, political, environmental, and economic).

This standard requires students to develop and implement a manufacturing process with quality control procedures that guarantee its effectiveness during manufacture and as a finished outcome – ensuring that the majority of units in a multi-unit production run meet the established specifications and tolerances. This may mean testing/inspecting a percentage of the outcomes to ensure agreed tolerances are met

When students are selecting an outcome for manufacture teachers need to ensure that it is feasible in terms of timeframe, complexity and resources, and that it gives students scope to demonstrate that they meet all the requirements of the standard.

Examples of outcomes with the potential for manufacture include such things as:

  • simple cheeses such as feta, ricotta or haloumi, gourmet burger patties, chocolates, biscuits, snack food, deli meals, baked goods
  • Cape Cod chairs or similar furniture items, wooden toys, multiple units of such things as kitchen drawers or bathroom accessories
  • screen-printed t-shirts, small textile items
  • multiple units of a craft idea
  • print publications
  • mini herb gardens

It is key to remember that the primary focus for this standard is the manufacturing process and the quality control of the outcomes, that is, on the process and implementation. The manufacturing process will need to run more than once in order to get the feedback and evaluation in order to improve the process. It is likely that the more stable the material and the simpler it is to control the stages of production the less numbers of product will need to be produced to establish an effective manufacturing system.

Quality controls systems need to be established (colour, weight, size for example, related to the specifications and tolerances).

The context for this could be set in a production of outcomes for a market day, gala, hospice appeal, school canteen, camp, fundraising or part of a community service project or a Young Enterprise activity. Situating the process within an authentic context (for example: a market day, fundraising, camp food, promoting the school, team uniforms or a school trip) may be more engaging for students leading to greater success.

While students need to manage the implementation process to achieve this standard, they may use other people (for example. classmates or parents) to help carry out the process. Evidence needs to be organised in a way that clearly documents the student’s decision making before, during and after the development and implementation of the manufacturing process.

Several students may participate in the actual manufacture as long as they can individually demonstrate the evidence for the standard. For example students as a group design and manufacturer small wooden toys (for example a toy train) for preschools- one student could design the engine, one the carriage and so on and they then work to develop tolerances and outcome consistency that will then go towards a larger outcome. Students could then design a process for the manufacture of their section of the toy.

To be successful stsudents will need to be able  to

  • Identify a manufacturing process suitable for multi-unit manufacture of their outcome
  • Create a flow diagram that shows their planned process, including:
    • quality control procedures (and information about how these will be carried out and how they will inform the manufacturing process)
    • the techniques that will be used (and information about how these reflect accepted codes and practices, including safety and legal requirements).
    • Identify and list the resources (including materials, space, equipment, and work force – this could be themselves and or others) that they will need in order to implement this process.
    • Work out how they will manage the manufacture of multiple units and if they use other people to help, provide training if relevant. (Studesnts must design and organise all the aspects of the manufacturing that is, oversee the manufacturing process.)
    • Use the established specifications and resources to implement their manufacturing process and manufacture multiple outcomes.

As they (and the selected work force if applicable) complete the manufacturing process, keep a record of what has been done. This should include:

  • a flow diagram showing the planned manufacturing process
  • photographs of stages in the manufacturing process, showing the techniques and resources used
  • annotations to explain the photographs (for example, explaining how a procedure meets accepted codes of construction or safety or legal requirements)
  • the results of all quality control procedures
  • evidence of feedback from quality control being used to review the manufacturing process and, if required, to modify the process in a way that leads to an improvement in the proportion of units that meet the specifications.

For the most up to date information, teachers should be referring to the latest version of the standards, conditions of assessment and assessment resources on TKI and the moderators reports, clarifications documents and student exemplars on the NZQA website. See links below.

Resources to support student achievement

Assessment resource 

Annotated Exemplars

Last updated May 30, 2018