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AOs/LOs by level

Technological practice (TP)

6-1 | 6-2 | 6-3

7-1 | 7-2 | 7-3

8-1 | 8-2 | 8-3

Technological knowledge (TK)

6-1 | 6-2 | 6-3

7-1 | 7-2 | 7-3

8-1 | 8-2 | 8-3

Nature of technology (NT)

6-1 | 6-2

7-1 | 7-2

8-1 | 8-2

Design in technology (DET)

6-1 | 6-2

7-1 | 7-2

8-1/2

Manufacturing (MFG)

6-1 | 6-2

7-1 | 7-2

8-1/2

Technical areas (TCA)

8-1 

Construction and mechanical technologies (CMT)

6-1 | 6-2 | 6-3 | 6-4

6-5 | 6-6 | 6-7

7-1 |  7-2 |  7-3 |  7-4

7-5 |  7-6 |  7-7

8-1 | 8-2 | 8-3 | 8-4

8-5 | 8-6 | 8-7

Design and visual communication (DVC)

6-1 | 6-2 | 6-3

7-1 | 7-2 | 7-3

8-1 | 8-2 | 8-3

Digital technologies (DTG)

6-1 | 6-2 | 6-3 | 6-4

6-5 | 6-6 | 6-7 | 6-8

6-9 | 6-10 | 6-11 | 6-12

7-1 |  7-2 |  7-3 |  7-4

7-5 |  7-6 |  7-7 |  7-8

7-9 |  7-10 |  7-11 |  7-12

8-1 | 8-2 | 8-3 | 8-4

8-5 |  8-6/7 | 8-8 | 8-9

8-10 |  8-11 | 8-12

Processing technologies (PRT)

6-1 | 6-2 | 6-3

7-1 | 7-2 | 7-3

8-1/2 | 8-3


Outcome development and evaluation TP 8-3

Outcome development and evaluation can involve developing conceptual designs, or products and systems from an initial idea to a fully realised outcome that is evaluated in situ.

Outcome development and evaluation relies on the use and/or development of constructive skills and knowledge – including those associated with working with materials and components.

Achievement objectives: TP8-3

Students will:

  • critically analyse their own and others’ outcomes and their determination of fitness for purpose in order to inform the development of ideas for feasible outcomes
  • undertake a critical evaluation that is informed by on-going experimentation and functional modeling, stakeholder feedback, trialling in the physical and social environments, and an understanding of the issue as it relates to the wider context
  • use the information gained to select, justify, and develop an outcome
  • evaluate this outcome’s fitness for purpose against the brief
  • justify the evaluation using feedback from stakeholders and demonstrating a critical understanding of the issue that takes account of all contextual dimensions.

Indicators

  • Generates design ideas that are informed by research and critical analysis of existing outcomes and knowledge of material innovations.
  • Develops design ideas for feasible outcomes that are justified with evidence gained through functional modeling that serves to gather evidence from multiple stakeholders and test designs ideas from a range of perspectives.
  • Undertakes evaluation of design ideas informed by critical analysis of evaluative practices to support the development of a conceptual design for an outcome that optimises resources and takes into account maintenance and disposal implications.
  • Undertakes functional modeling of the conceptual design to provide evidence that the proposed outcome has the potential to be fit for purpose.
  • Evaluates suitability of materials/components, based on their performance properties, to select those appropriate for use in the production of a feasible outcome that optimises resources and takes into account maintenance and disposal implications.
  • Undertakes prototyping to gain specific evidence of an outcomes fitness for purpose and use this to justify any decisions to refine, modify and/ or accept the outcome as final.
  • Uses stakeholder feedback and an understanding of the physical and social requirements of where the outcome will be situated to support and justify an evaluation of the outcome and development practices as fit for purpose.

Progression

At level 8, students’ progress to the consideration of the fitness for purpose, in its broadest sense, including the context, suitability of materials, components, techniques, and processes.

This requires the student to evaluate both the outcome and /or the conceptual design and the practices used in the development of the design and outcome. Judgment of fitness for purpose in the broadest sense may include, for example such things as:

  • the extent to which the outcome has the potential to meet the brief
  • consideration of the technical feasibility of the proposed outcome
  • the appropriateness and social acceptability of the design, for example, the appropriateness and relevance of content or materials/components, language, and imagery; cultural awareness and appropriateness relative to the audiences and use of the intended outcome; an absence of gender bias or stereotypes
  • information about maintenance, or disposal
  • ethical issues, such as copyright, social and legal implications, codes of practice.

Teacher guidance

To support students to undertake outcome development and evaluation at level 8, teachers could:

  • ensure that there is a brief with clear specifications against which a developed outcome can be evaluated. (This can be teacher given or student generated however, both should have a conceptual statement and specifications that allow the prototype to be judged to be fit for purpose in its broadest sense.)
  • establish an environment that supports student innovation and encourages critical analysis of existing outcomes and knowledge of material innovations
  • support students to critically analyse the ways in which the fitness for purpose of existing outcomes have been determined, and how appropriate development practices were established
  • support students to develop drawing and modeling skills to communicate and explore design ideas. Emphasis should be on progressing 2D and 3D drawing skills and increasing the range and complexity of functional modelling
  • support students to explore a range of materials/components and to develop the necessary knowledge and skills to evaluate and make effective use of them 
  • support students to establish which materials/components would be optimal for use when taking into account all contextual dimensions
  • support students to gain targeted stakeholder feedback and understand the implications of the physical and social environment in which the outcome is to be located.

Contexts for teaching and learning

  • Provide a suitable teaching and learning programme that investigates the requirements and processes involved in developing and testing conceptual designs and prototypes for product development. This could come from case studies or by inviting a professional technologist to talk to the students.
  • Support students to develop a sound understanding of types and purpose of functional modeling and undertake functional modeling that:
    • explores and evaluates developing design ideas and conceptual designs, and
    • gathers evidence on all aspects of the outcome including its likely technical feasibility and social acceptability.
  • Support students to use a range of models and modes to gain critical feedback from the client, mentors, and other identified stakeholders from the wider community to guide the development of the outcome to meet the needs of the brief and specification.
  • Support students to keep a log book that documents the development of the conceptual design and prototype to:
    • evaluate their practical techniques and processes to determine the suitability for use in making a prototype
    • explore a range of materials/components, and to develop the necessary knowledge and skills to evaluate and make effective use of them
    • undertake prototyping to gain evidence that enables clear judgments regarding the outcome’s fitness for purpose and determine the need for any changes to enhance the outcome
    • gain targeted on-going stakeholder feedback and understand the implications of the physical and social environment in which the outcome is to be located and justify key decisions and evaluations of fitness for purpose.
  • Schedule regular progress checkpoints throughout the activity.
  • When developing the outcome teachers will need to support students to:
    • consider the wider social and physical environment in which their outcome is to be situated
    • build/create/make the prototype and trial it to gain specific information/evidence to say how it met fitness for purpose in its broadest sense. (A prototype will be developed using a variety of techniques and using evidence to prove the prototype has met the requirements of the brief and therefore be fit for purpose.)
    • reflect on what worked and what modifications they would make to ensure it meets all the specifications and considers how it is fit for purpose in its broadest sense.
  • Provide students with opportunities to develop skills such as:
    • developing, communicating, and evaluating design ideas and conceptual designs (communicating design ideas - graphically and in an annotated format)
    • undertaking research and use this to inform their work, to sift, sort, and synthesise information. Synthesising information is about assessing the new information and prior information in relation to each other, looking for logical relationships in the material, identifying the important ideas, and taking a critical attitude towards the material by relating it to your own views and experiences and thinking about how the material can be used. Synthesising information is not just summarising the information or identifying main points
    • generating and evaluating design ideas and conceptual designs and using evaluation tools and graphic organisers to explain and justify ideas for possible inclusion in the design
    • explaining an outcome's fitness for purpose using tools to evaluate and give reasons for the proposed outcome's potential fitness for purpose
    • using evidence from on-going research and functional modeling, including stakeholder feedback
    • synthesising evidence where they will bring all aspects of the information and evidence together
    • substantiating the outcome’s potential fitness for purpose, that is, using evidence to prove the conceptual design has the potential to meet the requirements of the brief and therefore be potentially fit for purpose
    • exploring a range of resources and the implications of material/component selection related to end of life disposal
    • critically investigating design features, including an exploration of the implications for on-going product maintenance, to determine the suitability of the resources
    • undertaking evaluative testing procedures in line with accepted codes of practice to ensure the resources will be appropriate for the product, ensuring that it will be fit for purpose in the broadest sense, using critical feedback of the client and mentor to select one conceptual design for further development.
  • Support students to develop a prototype to trial in situ and seek client, mentor, and peer feedback. Refinement can be undertaken in keeping with client and mentor feedback and this feedback must be related to the specifications of the brief. Students will be required to critically evaluate the prototypes’ fitness for purpose against the selected issue, and context, and the developed brief using key and wider community stakeholder feedback to justify its fitness for purpose in the broadest sense.
  • Use exemplars of previous students’ work, or a visit to a practicing technologist for students to observe and discuss their practice. Focus of this form of research is to undertake an analysis of the functional modeling techniques that were used to test and inform the development of the outcome(s) and ensure its overall fitness for purpose.

Literacy considerations

Students may need support to confidently communicate the following:

  • Design ideas that have been used to initiate decision making and act as a catalyst throughout the development of a conceptual design.
  • A conceptual design which clearly communicates a proposed technological outcome that has the potential to address the brief. This should include a detailed description of how the outcome would look and function. Conceptual designs can be presented using a variety of techniques which may include but are not limited to: freehand sketches, diagrams, technical drawings, scale models, computer simulations, and written descriptions, details of materials, and components and/or assembly instructions.
  • Judgment of the proposed outcome’s fitness for purpose in the broadest sense. Fitness for purpose in the broadest sense relates to the outcome described by the conceptual design, as well as the practices used to develop the conceptual design.
  • Judgments about fitness for purpose may include:
    • considerations of the outcome’s technical and social acceptability
    • sustainability of resources used
    • ethical nature of testing practices
    • cultural appropriateness of trialing procedures
    • determination of life cycle, maintenance, ultimate disposal
    • health and safety.
  • A Prototype is a completed outcome that is yet to be fully implemented (refer AS91611 Explanatory note 5). It is developed through technological practice and is reflective of relevant codes of practice. Prototyping is the trialling of the prototype to gain evidence for the evaluation of the outcome’s fitness for purpose in its intended physical and social environment (context). Refined prototype does not require another prototype.

Resources to support student achievement

Case studies relating to conceptual design

Manufacturing/processing technologies

General resources

Assessment for qualifications

Note: This achievement objective covers conceptual design and prototype development which is assessed in two different standards 3.3 and 3.4 respectively:

  • AS91610 Generic technology 3.3: Develop a conceptual design considering fitness for purpose in the broadest sense.
  • AS91611 Generic technology 3.4: Develop a prototype considering fitness for purpose in the broadest sense. 

Key messages from the standards

The brief used for achievement standard AS91610 must allow for a range of outcomes and include the purpose and probable attributes of the outcome. The brief may be provided by the teacher or developed by the student. Potential fitness for purpose refers to the likelihood of the outcome addressing the brief.

At level 8 the focus is determined by the student within the parameters set by the teacher. Students will determine their own context, explore this to select the issue, and develop at the need or opportunity from this.

Last updated June 8, 2018



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