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AO/LOs

Curriculum strands

Specialist strands

AOs/LOs by level

Technological practice (TP)

6-1 | 6-2 | 6-3

7-1 | 7-2 | 7-3

8-1 | 8-2 | 8-3

Technological knowledge (TK)

6-1 | 6-2 | 6-3

7-1 | 7-2 | 7-3

8-1 | 8-2 | 8-3

Nature of technology (NT)

6-1 | 6-2

7-1 | 7-2

8-1 | 8-2

Design in technology (DET)

6-1 | 6-2

7-1 | 7-2

8-1/2

Manufacturing (MFG)

6-1 | 6-2

7-1 | 7-2

8-1/2

Technical areas (TCA)

8-1 

Construction and mechanical technologies (CMT)

6-1 | 6-2 | 6-3 | 6-4

6-5 | 6-6 | 6-7

7-1 |  7-2 |  7-3 |  7-4

7-5 |  7-6 |  7-7

8-1 | 8-2 | 8-3 | 8-4

8-5 | 8-6 | 8-7

Design and visual communication (DVC)

6-1 | 6-2 | 6-3

7-1 | 7-2 | 7-3

8-1 | 8-2 | 8-3

Digital technologies (DTG)

6-1 | 6-2 | 6-3 | 6-4

6-5 | 6-6 | 6-7 | 6-8

6-9 | 6-10 | 6-11 | 6-12

7-1 |  7-2 |  7-3 |  7-4

7-5 |  7-6 |  7-7 |  7-8

7-9 |  7-10 |  7-11 |  7-12

8-1 | 8-2 | 8-3 | 8-4

8-5 |  8-6/7 | 8-8 | 8-9

8-10 |  8-11 | 8-12

Processing technologies (PRT)

6-1 | 6-2 | 6-3

7-1 | 7-2 | 7-3

8-1/2 | 8-3


Technological products TK 8–2

This component focuses on the relationship between the composition of materials and their performance properties and how this relationship impacts on the use of the materials in technological products. (Note that both the products and systems components are more relevant to some contexts than others.)

 

Achievement objective: TK 8–2

Students will:

  • understand the concepts and processes employed in materials development and evaluation and the implications of these for design, development, maintenance, and disposal of technological products.

Indicators

  • Discusses examples of the formulation of new materials and explain the underpinning concepts and processes involved in their development.
  • Discusses examples of evaluation procedures undertaken to determine the suitability of new materials and explain the underpinning concepts and processes involved in particular evaluations.
  • Discusses examples of past material developments and explain how these impacted on product design, development, manufacturing, maintenance and disposal.
  • Discusses examples of contemporary material developments and suggest probable implications for future technological product design, development, manufacturing, maintenance and disposal.

Progression

At level 8 of the curriculum students have progressed to develop their understanding of the development of materials both past and contemporary and their impact on the design, development, manufacturing, maintenance, and disposal of products. This supports students looking forward to the implications of new materials and their impact on future product design.

Teacher guidance

To support students to develop understanding of technological products at level 8, teachers could support students to:

  • understand that material evaluation enables decisions to be made about what material would be optimal to ensure the fitness for purpose when taking into account both the technical feasibility and social acceptability of the product
  • critically analyse a range of subjective and objective evaluative procedures used to justify material suitability and to explain the underpinning concepts and processes involved in these procedures
  • understand why the selection of appropriate material evaluation procedures relies on understanding the composition and structure of materials, how their properties can be enhanced through manipulation or transformation, the performance criteria required by technological products and an understanding of the physical and social context within which the technological product will be situated
  • understand that the development of new materials relies on understanding: existing materials including their advantages and limitations; new material composition and structure possibilities; formulation procedures; future requirements, needs and desires; and an awareness that new evaluative procedures may need to be developed to determine the suitability of new materials
  • identify and analyse examples where new materials have been developed, including past and contemporary examples, to gain insight into how material formulation and subsequent evaluation procedures are used to address performance, maintenance and disposal implications, and inform design and development decisions. Examples should include material development (including formulation procedures) and evaluation practices of technologists.

Contexts for teaching and learning

  • Ensure students understand the concepts of forming new materials, and the transforming and manipulation of these materials and how these processes impact on the development of materials.
  • Give consideration to the implications and impact of this material on a technological product from the inception of the product’s design to its disposal – taking a life cycle approach to product development.

Literacy considerations

  • Students may need support to understand the specialist language related to the formation, manipulation, and transformation of materials, product performance, maintenance and disposal.
  • Support students to describe and explain the concepts and process used in the development of materials and develop their understanding of the implications of the material in the design, implementation and ongoing maintenance and disposal of the product. This is a relationship between the material and the product and how the product was improved in its performance by the development of the material. To develop understanding, students could analyse examples where new materials have been developed, including past and contemporary examples, to gain insight into how material development is used to address performance, maintenance and disposal implications and inform design and development decisions in the context of a technological outcome.

Resources to support student achievement

Case study material

Assessment for qualifications

The following achievement standard could assess learning outcomes from this achievement objective:

  • AS91613 Generic technology 3.6 Demonstrate understanding of material development

Key messages from the standard

  • This standard does not require students to compare and contrast products or materials but to explore (describe and explain) the relationship between the material and the performance enhancement of the product(s). Students will need to understand how to write an explanation of this relationship.
  • Teachers must ensure students know how to write a report that meets the requirements as set out in the assessment specifications and covers everything asked for in the standard. Using the bullet points from the criteria of the standard as headings or using them as focus questions will support students to complete a report that presents evidence of their understanding clearly.
  • For this standard and assessment the understanding focuses on the development of a material and how the material enhanced a technological products’ performance, describing the development of the material, its contribution to the enhancement of a product’s performance, and describing the implications of the material on product design and development, implementation, maintenance, and disposal. While the focus is on development of a material, it may not be necessarily a new or smart material but could be a material that has significant impact developed previously or used in a new product. The material must be described (at achieved) and explained (at merit and excellence) in relation to the performance properties of the product – both physical and functional.
    AS91613 Explanatory note 3 covers a range of performance enhancements such as fire-proofing, increasing speed, durability, and impact protection, and is not an exclusive list. Some examples of these in products are:
    • High Performance Protective Textiles such as DEFLEXION™ material brings you a range of silicone impact protection technologies, allowing the easy creation of high-performance protective apparel and personal protective equipment.
    • D3O formally “D3o” is commonly used for impact protection, categorised as a smart fabric and intelligent textile often used in snow skiing protective garments.
    • High-technology swimwear fabrics are scientifically advanced materials used for swimwear in competitive water sports such as swimming and triathlon. Materials of this type are normally spandex and nylon composite fabrics with features to reduce drag against the water. One example is the LZR Racer Suit manufactured by Speedo using a high-technology swimwear fabric composed of woven elastane-nylon and polyurethane.
    • Endothermic materials such as gypsum, concrete and other cementitious products used in fireproofing buildings. Versions of these are used in aerodynamics, intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs) and re-entry vehicles, such as the space shuttles. Other examples include Gypsum, cementitious, and fibrous plasters.
    • Engineered woods such as MDF or fibrous plant based materials – flat-pack furniture is typically made out of man-made wood due to its low manufacturing costs and its low weight, and ease of transport.
    • Dairy-based films as an alternative to petroleum-based packaging.
    • Moulded pulp uses recycled newsprint to form package components. Here, researchers are moulding packaging from straw.
    • Potatopak (NZ) Ltd manufactures innovative 100% biodegradable food serving and packaging products from potato starch.
    • Materials for hypersonic vehicles. Speed and protection combined in materials for space travel
    • Stab- and flame-resistant fabrics (Vectran) in vests and body armour.
    • Omega-3 enriched foods and freeze-dried grape extract is used to boost the antioxidant level of various foods to enhance health.
    • Biomaterials such as the flax surfboard.
    • Formula 3 racing cars built using vegetable materials and powered by a chocolate by-product features potato-based components provided by New Zealand scientists.

Last updated June 8, 2018



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