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AOs/LOs by level

Technological practice (TP)

6-1 | 6-2 | 6-3

7-1 | 7-2 | 7-3

8-1 | 8-2 | 8-3

Technological knowledge (TK)

6-1 | 6-2 | 6-3

7-1 | 7-2 | 7-3

8-1 | 8-2 | 8-3

Nature of technology (NT)

6-1 | 6-2

7-1 | 7-2

8-1 | 8-2

Design in technology (DET)

6-1 | 6-2

7-1 | 7-2

8-1/2

Manufacturing (MFG)

6-1 | 6-2

7-1 | 7-2

8-1/2

Technical areas (TCA)

8-1 

Construction and mechanical technologies (CMT)

6-1 | 6-2 | 6-3 | 6-4

6-5 | 6-6 | 6-7

7-1 |  7-2 |  7-3 |  7-4

7-5 |  7-6 |  7-7

8-1 | 8-2 | 8-3 | 8-4

8-5 | 8-6 | 8-7

Design and visual communication (DVC)

6-1 | 6-2 | 6-3

7-1 | 7-2 | 7-3

8-1 | 8-2 | 8-3

Digital technologies (DTG)

6-1 | 6-2 | 6-3 | 6-4

6-5 | 6-6 | 6-7 | 6-8

6-9 | 6-10 | 6-11 | 6-12

7-1 |  7-2 |  7-3 |  7-4

7-5 |  7-6 |  7-7 |  7-8

7-9 |  7-10 |  7-11 |  7-12

8-1 | 8-2 | 8-3 | 8-4

8-5 |  8-6/7 | 8-8 | 8-9

8-10 |  8-11 | 8-12

Processing technologies (PRT)

6-1 | 6-2 | 6-3

7-1 | 7-2 | 7-3

8-1/2 | 8-3


Planning for practice TP 7-2

Achievement standard 2.2 AS91355

At level 7, effective planning for practice should result in planning that is both flexible and robust. It should be flexible enough to incorporate modifications and it should be robust enough to provide clear guidance of where to next? Ensure resource availability, and allow critical feedback to be gained in time for key decision points. Effective planning techniques ensure efficient resource management (including the management of materials, time, money, and personnel) and are critical for informed and responsive technological practice.

Planning for practice includes a recording aspect to support resource management, enable reflection, and ensure vital documentation is maintained. A range of planning tools can be used to enhance the quality of the practice undertaken and include such things as:

  • brainstorms, mind-maps, idea banks, reflective journals and/or scrapbooks, plans of action, Gantt charts, flow diagrams, graphical organisers, and structuring/diagramming techniques. 

These planning tools should be selected and/or developed on the basis that they are best suited to the nature of the practice being undertaken.

Record keeping may include: oral, graphical, written, and/or electronic modes of documentation as appropriate. Technological practice is enhanced when the documentation of planning strategies best meets the needs of all stakeholders, including the student themselves. Planning tools should take into account the physical and social environment into which the outcome is to be situated, as well the environment in which the technological practice is occurring.

Achievement objective: TP 7-2

Students will:

  • critically analyse their own and others’ past and current planning and management practices in order to develop and employ project management practices that will ensure the effective development of an outcome to completion.

Indicators

Students can:

  • critically analyse their own and others’ project management experiences to identify key factors essential to efficient project management 
  • identify personal strengths and weaknesses in relationship to project management in technology, and plan learning opportunities to develop and enhance these 
  • critically analyse a broad range of planning tools and select those that would best support their project management practices 
  • develop an initial plan that allows for extensive exploration of what efficient planning and resource management would require in this environment; and employ the use of specifically selected planning tools to support the project management of their work in an efficient and critically reflective manner 
  • ensure decisions about information presented, means of presentation, resources used, and the management of time and resources were informed and critically evaluated in an ongoing manner
  • justify past decisions, or provide direction for new plans should the practice result in a dead end or should the development be queried.

Progression

At level 6, students have used a range of planning tools to guide their development of an outcome. At level 7, students will draw on this previous level knowledge of planning tools and their use to support technological practice by:

  • using their knowledge and understanding of using planning tools to manage the development of an outcome by selecting appropriate planning tools, and use these to guide their technological development of an outcome to address a brief. Students should be able to explain why a particular tool is appropriate for their needs.

At this level, students will also be required to:

  • review a range of existing planning tools to inform the selection of planning tools to use within their practice
  • select planning tool/s to manage the development
  • use planning tools to set achievable goals
  • identify critical review points
  • use the determined planning tool/s to guide the progress and completion of the technological outcome.

Teacher guidance

To support students to undertake planning for practice at level 7, teachers could:

  • ensure that there is a brief against which planning to develop an outcome can occur
  • support students to critically analyse a range of planning tools and project management practices that have been used in past technological practice
  • support students to select and use planning tools to make effective planning decisions and establish and manage all resources (including time, money, stakeholder/s, materials, components, software, equipment, tools and/or hardware)
    • Effective planning decisions enable the outcome produced to successfully meet the brief
  • support students to select and use planning tools which will allow for the efficient recording of justifications for key planning decisions made
  • support students to ensure appropriate resources are available (stakeholder/s, materials, components, software, equipment, tools and/or hardware) suitable for their outcome.

Contexts for teaching and learning

  • Provide a range of planning tools for analysis so the student can select tools to ensure record keeping remains relevant to enhancing the quality of the practice undertaken. These planning tools should be selected and/or developed on the basis that they are best suited to the nature of the practice being undertaken, and the communication strengths of the student. Record keeping may include: oral, graphical, written, and/or electronic modes of documentation as appropriate. Technological practice is enhanced when the documentation of planning strategies best meets the needs of all stakeholders, including the technologist themselves. 
  • Planning tools include such things as: brainstorms, mind-maps, idea banks, reflective journals and/or scrapbooks, plans of action, Gantt charts, flow diagrams, graphical organisers, and structuring/diagramming techniques. In order to work most effectively and responsively, specific planning techniques need to be developed as part of technological practice to ensure that all factors key to success are taken into account throughout the developmental work. The planning tools should show evidence of planning practices rather than a template to complete.
  • Sharing, by the teacher, of his or her own use of planning tools to manage teaching and learning, which can enhance student practice.
  • Encourage on-going reflection and evaluation of past and current planning experiences (both one’s own and those of others) to enhance the student’s ability to make informed planning decisions.
  • Encourage students to take into account the intended physical and social environments into which the outcome is to be situated, as well the environment in which the technological practice is occurring, such as access to particular equipment, codes of practice, and social and cultural considerations. Ensure students are aware of resources available to them. These resources may include but not limited to: time, materials, tools and equipment, research information, community, and school-based specialist knowledge and skills.
  • Note that assessment of this objective is about planning for the development of an outcome so the brief must allow for technological development of a conceptual design or prototype.

Literacy considerations

Students will require support and become independent in their ability to identify, explain, manage, and reflect aspects of their planning and planning decisions. They need to understand that they are planning to develop an outcome and planning to undertake technological practice.

Students will need to be able to confidently communicate their planning and be able to undertake the following:

  • Selecting planning tools – to select is to use the findings from research and analysis of a range of planning tools to write a statement that clearly identifies the planning tools that the student considers the most suitable tool/s to guide and to be relevant to their practice.
  • Determining critical review points – to determine critical review points is to identify key stages where the student will need to reflect, review, and revise their technological practice and developing outcome in order to determine next steps.
  • Managing the development and reviewing progress – to manage is to set achievable goals and review these at predetermined times to ensure resources are available at a given time and to ensure progress is made.
  • Ongoing reflection on goals – ongoing reflection is strategically planned multiple review times that inform the development of the practice; these can also be a consultation within stakeholder/s, can be prior to and/or after processes, and establishes next steps.

Students will also need support to develop the skills to:

  • undertake research and use of this to inform their work
  • analyse planning tools to gain understandings of the potential and evidence that each planning tool provides
  • use the information to identify critical review points
  • provide sufficient evidence within their portfolios/journals that planning tools have been used to guide technological practice and to support planning decisions, and those influencing the development of an outcome.

Resources to support teaching and learning

Case studies – planning for practice in action

Assessment for qualifications

The following achievement standard(s) could assess learning outcomes from this achievement objective:

  • AS91355 Generic technology 2.2: Select and use planning tools to manage the development of an outcome.

Key messages from the standard

Teachers will need to provide access to a range of planning tools for students to explore and evaluate. The benefits and constraints of the tools will determine the most appropriate tool to guide the development of an outcome. Planning tools may include but are not limited to: brainstorms, mind-maps, idea banks, reflective journals and scrapbooks, plans of action, Gantt charts, flow diagrams, graphical organisers, Scrum boards, online tools such as Trello, and spreadsheets and databases.

Existing planning tools may include but are not limited to: those used by students, teachers, managers, industry mentors, and practising technologists.

The teacher ensures that the students are aware of resources available to them. These resources may include but not limited to: time, materials, tools and equipment, research information, and community and school-based specialist knowledge and skills. At level 7, students should be demonstrating optimisation of planning. That is, students should be aiming to take full advantage of resources such as time, materials, tools and equipment, research information, and community and school-based specialist knowledge and skills to ensure the successful development of an outcome. This should be evident in their selection and use of planning tools as to how they are managing these interactions and events.

The planning undertaken can be either to develop an outcome to a conceptual design stage or to a prototype/finished technological outcome stage.

Note: An outcome is a conceptual design for an outcome and/or a prototype itself (prototype).

Conditions of assessment

The teacher provides opportunities for students to develop evidence for the standard by:

  • ensuring that there is a suitable brief for the development of a technological outcome
  • encouraging the student to analyse planning tools from a range of sources and select those appropriate to their practice
  • supporting students to use selected planning tools to effectively manage resources and efficiently manage time and materials
  • supporting the student to develop questioning and self-reflection skills
  • conferencing with the student and supporting them to reflect on progress and use this to project forward during the development process to ensure the completed outcome meets the brief.

Some student evidence could be enhanced if a greater emphasis was placed on what is to be done, why it should be done, and identifying potential conflicts and compromises. More reviewing and revising of decisions would also help to show the efficient management of the development of an outcome.

Evidence for this achievement standard would be expected to be gathered from in-class and homework activities over a period of time specified by the teacher. This evidence will be provided by individual students and could be presented in a portfolio, online, in a PowerPoint, in a video of an oral presentation, or in other forms negotiated with the teacher. Evidence could include a variety of media (for example, written, digital) in any format. It is recommended that where written format is used, there be a maximum size of A3. Evidence needs to be organised in a way that clearly communicates the student’s planning practices. 

Teachers must closely supervise stages of the development process in order to ensure authenticity of student work.

Resources to support student achievement

Last updated June 8, 2018



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