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6-1 | 6-2 | 6-3

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6-1 | 6-2

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Design in technology (DET)

6-1 | 6-2

7-1 | 7-2


Manufacturing (MFG)

6-1 | 6-2

7-1 | 7-2


Technical areas (TCA)


Construction and mechanical technologies (CMT)

6-1 | 6-2 | 6-3 | 6-4

6-5 | 6-6 | 6-7

7-1 |  7-2 |  7-3 |  7-4

7-5 |  7-6 |  7-7

8-1 | 8-2 | 8-3 | 8-4

8-5 | 8-6 | 8-7

Design and visual communication (DVC)

6-1 | 6-2 | 6-3

7-1 | 7-2 | 7-3

8-1 | 8-2 | 8-3

Digital technologies (DTG)

6-1 | 6-2 | 6-3 | 6-4

6-5 | 6-6 | 6-7 | 6-8

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7-1 |  7-2 |  7-3 |  7-4

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7-9 |  7-10 |  7-11 |  7-12

8-1 | 8-2 | 8-3 | 8-4

8-5 |  8-6/7 | 8-8 | 8-9

8-10 |  8-11 | 8-12

Processing technologies (PRT)

6-1 | 6-2 | 6-3

7-1 | 7-2 | 7-3

8-1/2 | 8-3

Construct a resistant materials product CMT 6-1

Achievement Standard 1.20 AS 91057

Construct a resistant material product requires students to implement procedures and tests to make specified products using resistant materials.

Resistant materials may include but are not limited to: wood, composites, metal, alloys, ceramics, and plastics. Constructing using resistant materials require particular techniques and procedures to be undertaken to enable materials to be skilfully and safely measured, cut, shaped, joined and finished to make quality products.

Learning Objective: CMT 6-1

Students will:

  • implement basic procedures to make a resistant materials product


Students can:

  • undertake basic procedures to construct a product that meets specifications 

  • apply given techniques and tests in a way that complies with relevant 
health and safety regulations
  • show independence and accuracy in the execution of basic techniques and 

  • perform basic techniques and tests in a manner that economises time, effort and materials. 


Prior to level 6 students should be developing a range of basic skills using a range of resistant materials to develop skill and confidence. Relevant health and safety and codes of practice should also be a focus of the teaching and learning programme. 

At level 6 students learn to perform a sequence of techniques and tests to make resistant materials products that meet specifications. Students should also learn what accuracy, independence and economy of time, resources and materials looks like within this context.

The Teacher Guidance section provides information that supports teachers scaffolding of learning from levels 1-8 of the curriculum. This allows for differentiation of a programme of learning.

The deliberate use of provide, guide, and support in this section signals that as students' capacity for self-management increases, teachers progressively reduce the level of scaffolding provided.

  • Provide – the teacher should take full responsibility for introducing and explicitly teaching new knowledge, skills or practices.
  • Guide – the students have a level of understanding and competency on which they can draw but the teacher remains primarily responsible for continuing to develop these.
  • Support – the students take primary responsibility for their own learning, drawing on all their previous experiences to consolidate and extend their understanding. The teacher is supportive rather than directive.
  • The Teacher Guidance also uses the term ensure to indicate when the teacher plays a monitoring role to check that conditions critical for learning are present.

Teacher Guidance

To support students to implement basic procedures to make a resistant materials product, at level 6, teachers could:

  • Ensure students are aware of a wide range of basic measuring, cutting, 
shaping, joining and finishing techniques 

  • Ensure students are able to interpret job sequences from step-by-step 
instructions and understand the tests required to check progress when 
constructing products that will ultimately meet specifications 

  • Ensure students have an appropriate environment, tools and materials 
to enable students to work safely with resistant materials to make a product 

  • Provide opportunity for students to explore and discuss techniques and 
tests in terms of skillfulness and efficiency 

  • Provide opportunity to explore what techniques are most suitable for use 
with a variety of resistant materials 

  • Provide students with the opportunity to practice a range of basic 
techniques on different resistant materials and carry out appropriate checks to increase accuracy and finish. This may be through completing a range of individual products and/or joint class projects/activities. 

Contexts for teaching and learning

This objective requires the student to implement basic procedures using resistant materials such as wood, metal, plastic and glass to make a product. In a programme of work it is possible to link these basic skills with knowledge used to make products using resistant materials– refer to learning objective CMT 6-3 “Knowledge of resistant Materials construction” or developing a prototype , refer to achievement objective TP 6-3 Outcome Development and evaluation.

Choosing a specified product

  • There are a variety of approaches that could be used within the teaching and learning programme. Students can make the same product selected by the teacher, or select one from a range, or the students could negotiate with the teacher, self- selected products that are suitable. Alternatively, they can implement procedures by making a product of their own choice through undertaking Technological practice as part of a wider learning and assessment programme. 
  • Specifications should be determined prior to the product being made. Teachers should ensure students are not addressing specifications for a product that is too hard or too easy particulalry if they have selected or designed their own product.

Teachers must ensure that students have the necessary skill set and techniques and processes appropriate relating to the basic  skills, which are related to this level of the curriculum and have the opportunity to practice these prior to any assessment.

Teachers and students should be familiar with "Safety in Technology Education: A Guidance Manual for New Zealand Schools" and the implications of the relevant sections when it comes to students implementing their construction processes.

Literacy considerations

Students will need to understand the following terminology:

Specified product: refers to a product and its relevant specifications, including material specifications.  The specifications must be of sufficient rigour to allow the student to meet the standard.  The specifications need to be agreed prior to the product being made.  They may be teacher-given or developed in negotiation with the student.

Specifications: define the requirements of the physical and functional nature of the product which are measurable

Testing procedures may include but are not limited to: measuring, trialling techniques, fitting, and visual checks

Resources to support teaching and learning 

Case study material

General resources:

Health and safety procedures 

Assessment for qualifications

The following achievement standard(s) could assess learning outcomes from this learning objective:

  • AS 91057 Construction and Mechanical Technologies 1.20 Implement basic procedures using resistant materials to make a specified product

Prior to beginning assessment teachers need to ensure students have:

  • a step-by-step guide of procedures that are robust enough to clearly step the student through the “making” of the product. Skills required to make the product can be developed through practising techniques prior to assessment
  • guidance on the tests to be applied to ensure that the product is constructed accurately and meets specifications.

Before beginning this assessment activity, provide opportunities for students to explore and practise a range of processing operations and tests

Key messages from the standard

Specifications should be determined prior to the product being made. Teachers should ensure students are not addressing specifications for a product that is too hard or too easy. Specifications may describe the materials to be used, the size, and dimensions or be manufacturing specifications such as the construction methods, acceptable tolerances and finishing techniques. This may also include such things as drawings, for example, sketches with measurements taking into account tolerances ,step-by-step instructions , written or pictorial, on how to construct the product (which must include the range of techniques set out in the standard),  a cutting list, a materials list . 

The specifications should not include things that describe what is required for Merit or Excellence, that is, specifications that reflect accuracy, independence and economy of time, effort and materials

Students must be familiar with the Explanatory notes from the standard that cover the following:

  • A Specified product refers to a product and its relevant specifications, including material specifications.  The specifications must be of sufficient rigour to allow the student to meet the standard.  The specifications, material/s and techniques to be used and a step-by-step guide need to be determined prior to the product being made.  They may be teacher-given or developed in negotiation with the student. ( EN 3)
  • Basic procedures are those that require the student to perform a sequence of techniques as instructed to make a product. (EN 4)
  • Resistant materials in this achievement standard may include but are not limited to – wood, composites, metal, alloys, ceramics, plastics. (EN 5)

Techniques are to include:

  • one or more of measuring/marking out
  • one or more of sizing/shaping/forming
  • one or more of joining/assembling
  • one or more of finishing/detailing/tuning. (EN 6)

The techniques that students demonstrate must include one or more of each of the above categories. The evidence that students collect must demonstrate that they have complied with relevant health and safety regulations as they apply these techniques. In some cases students work to develop skills beyond the basic level, however some procedures are beyond the expectations of this level and students should not be

penalised if they are not yet able to perform these procedures. For example, dovetail jointing is defined as a special feature requiring advanced skills at NCEA level 2.

This standard does not require students to devise the sequence of techniques this can be supplied by the teacher. If the student has determined how to make the product through technological practice, then the teacher must ensure this will lead to the successful development of an outcome.

Tests may include but are not limited to such things as measurement of tolerances, performance testing, fitting, visual checks. (Explanatory Note 7)

While constructing their product, students must undertake a range of appropriate tests to demonstrate that the product meets the specifications. Students are not expected to determine these tests as part of their assessment; therefore teachers should ensure that students know the appropriate tests, this information can be provided for the students, students also need to know how to carry out the tests. 

Teachers must be able to justify assessment judgements by providing evidence based on classroom observations and discussions with students. As the teacher, you need to be able to demonstrate that your judgments are soundly based. This means some recording of evidence is necessary. However, recording of evidence should not be time-consuming or onerous. Students could be asked simply to keep a record of progress and how they have resolved problems – maybe by annotating construction plans or the equivalent. You could add your own observations to the students’ records.

Students could also provide evidence by,

  • recording the outcomes of the tests as they apply their product,
  • by taking and annotating photos to show economic use of materials and accuracy. Annotated photographic evidence supported by teacher verification is an effective way to collect evidence for this type of assessment


  • Independence can be gauged from the level of teacher input required, and from observation of student interactions.
  • Accuracy of execution can be seen in the processes used in the finished product, and in how the student has followed through on information from testing.
  • Economy of time is gauged by observation and relates to how effectively students organize themselves, look after their resources so that they can pick up where they left off the previous period and minimize downtime.
  • Economy of effort is a measure of efficiency. For example to what extent does the student know what to do and get on and do it rather than relying on trial and error as a method of working. This can be gauged from classroom observation and/or planning logs.
  • Economy of resources is gauged by the extent to which a student makes use of materials.
  • Economy of time, effort and resources could be demonstrated in one action. For example students could chose the correct tool for the task, which saves them time and effort and minimises wastage.
  • Economy of time and effort are often linked.

It is important that students during the teaching programme develop and understanding of what independence means in the context of this work and that the teacher is able to make professional judgements based on this common understanding

Achieved – make (with some guidance)

“With some guidance” means the teacher (or peers) may:

  • respond to student-initiated requests for assistance, for example, where to find suitable material, or what tool to use
  • sometimes prompt the student to, for example, consider other options, think about the wisdom of a choice, or reread the brief.

The teacher (or peers) may NOT, however:

  • make any decisions for students
  • assist a student in any hands-on way (do any part of the project for them)
  • respond to frequent questions or requests for step-by-step guidance.

Merit – make “with independence and accuracy”

“With independence” means the student:

  • owns the practice (acts as if responsibility for achieving a quality outcome sits with them)
  • plans effectively, thinks ahead, is well-organised, self-starting and self-managing
  • does their own decision-making
  • books any equipment/machines they need in timely fashion
  • purchases and/or brings required materials in timely fashion
  • stores their work carefully so that it is easily retrieved next period
  • carries out appropriate checking and testing and takes required corrective action
  • recognises and deals with issues promptly, so that they are able to meet the deadline

is always able to describe what they are doing, why, and where their project is up to. 

Evidence of assessment

Students could provide evidence by recording information about their processes and the outcomes through taking and annotating photos, video clips or keeping a simple journal.  Annotating photographs and assessment schedules are a means for the assessor to confirm judgements around independence and accuracy (for merit) and if the student has worked in a manner that economises time, effort and materials (excellence). These annotations could be derived from classroom observation and/or discussions with students.

This evidence will be provided by individual students and could be presented in a portfolio, in a PowerPoint, in a video of an oral presentation or in other forms negotiated with the teacher.  Evidence could include a variety of media (for example, written, digital, photographic) in any format.  It is recommended that where written format is used there be a maximum size of A3.  Evidence will also be based on assessor observation of the manner in which the techniques are carried out. Evidence needs to be organised in a way that clearly demonstrates the student’s ability to implement basic procedures using resistant materials to make a specified product.

For the most up to date information, teachers should be referring to the latest version of the standards, conditions of assessment and assessment resources on TKI and the moderators reports, clarifications documents and student exemplars on the NZQA website. See links below.

Resources to support student achievement

 Assessment resources:

Annotated Exemplars

Last updated June 8, 2018