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AOs/LOs by level

Technological practice (TP)

6-1 | 6-2 | 6-3

7-1 | 7-2 | 7-3

8-1 | 8-2 | 8-3

Technological knowledge (TK)

6-1 | 6-2 | 6-3

7-1 | 7-2 | 7-3

8-1 | 8-2 | 8-3

Nature of technology (NT)

6-1 | 6-2

7-1 | 7-2

8-1 | 8-2

Design in technology (DET)

6-1 | 6-2

7-1 | 7-2

8-1/2

Manufacturing (MFG)

6-1 | 6-2

7-1 | 7-2

8-1/2

Technical areas (TCA)

8-1 

Construction and mechanical technologies (CMT)

6-1 | 6-2 | 6-3 | 6-4

6-5 | 6-6 | 6-7

7-1 |  7-2 |  7-3 |  7-4

7-5 |  7-6 |  7-7

8-1 | 8-2 | 8-3 | 8-4

8-5 | 8-6 | 8-7

Design and visual communication (DVC)

6-1 | 6-2 | 6-3

7-1 | 7-2 | 7-3

8-1 | 8-2 | 8-3

Digital technologies (DTG)

6-1 | 6-2 | 6-3 | 6-4

6-5 | 6-6 | 6-7 | 6-8

6-9 | 6-10 | 6-11 | 6-12

7-1 |  7-2 |  7-3 |  7-4

7-5 |  7-6 |  7-7 |  7-8

7-9 |  7-10 |  7-11 |  7-12

8-1 | 8-2 | 8-3 | 8-4

8-5 |  8-6/7 | 8-8 | 8-9

8-10 |  8-11 | 8-12

Processing technologies (PRT)

6-1 | 6-2 | 6-3

7-1 | 7-2 | 7-3

8-1/2 | 8-3


Knowledge of product preservation, packaging and storage PRT 6-3

Achievement Standard 1.62 AS 91084

Product preservation, packaging and storage focuses on the ways in which products can be treated during and after their development in order to maintain their integrity over time by inhibiting internal degradation and/or protecting them from external damage. 

Learning objective: PRT 6-3

Students will:

  • Demonstrate understanding of basic concepts and techniques used in the preservation, packaging and storage of products

Indicators

Students can:

  • explain the links between types of decay and preservation techniques 

  • explain why a particular preservation and packaging technique was 
chosen for a specific product to be stored in a local environment 

  • discuss how to control the storage environment to limit decay of different 
types of products during storage 

  • discuss why legal labelling is required in a local environment 

  • compare and contrast preservation and packaging techniques for a 
product to be stored in a local environment. 


Progression

Prior to level 6 students should be exploring a range of simple preservation, packaging and storage concepts including the standards for labelling of products.

At Level 6 students will have learnt about basic concepts relating to why certain types of products require the use of preservation techniques, and which techniques are suitable for use in domestic settings where the product planned to be used in the near future and storage will be within known environmental conditions. They also will how packaging and storage procedures work together to further protect products in local environments. 

The Teacher Guidance section provides information that supports teachers scaffolding of learning from levels 1-8 of the curriculum. This allows for differentiation of a programme of learning.

The deliberate use of provide, guide, and support in this section signals that as students' capacity for self-management increases, teachers progressively reduce the level of scaffolding provided.

  • Provide – the teacher should take full responsibility for introducing and explicitly teaching new knowledge, skills or practices.
  • Guide – the students have a level of understanding and competency on which they can draw but the teacher remains primarily responsible for continuing to develop these.
  • Support – the students take primary responsibility for their own learning, drawing on all their previous experiences to consolidate and extend their understanding. The teacher is supportive rather than directive.
  • The Teacher Guidance also uses the term ensure to indicate when the teacher plays a monitoring role to check that conditions critical for learning are present.

Teacher guidance

To support students to develop understandings about basic concepts and techniques used in the preservation, packaging and storage of products, at level 6, teachers could:

  • Provide opportunity for students to explore why we need to preserve 
certain products to maintain their integrity over time. 

  • Provide opportunity for students to explore different forms of packaging 
and storage instructions and relate this to the specific nature of the 
product and the techniques used in its preservation. 

  • Ensure students are aware of the requirements for labelling of preserved 
products to ensure end-users can make informed choices. 

  • Ensure students are familiar with a wide range of basic preservation 
techniques (eg, freezing, heating, air drying, chemical additives – use of vinegar/sugar), and packaging (eg, bottling, vacuum packing, solid wall containers, padded protective wrapping, labelling for identification) and storage procedures (eg, freezer, refrigerator, cool/dark cupboard) commonly used in domestic situations. 

  • Guide students to understand how the techniques and procedures used in preserving/packaging and storage of a range of products allows them to maintain their integrity over time and in a known environment (eg, in the home, at school). 

  • Provide students with multiple opportunities to select and test different basic techniques and procedures to enhance product integrity. This would include understanding the properties and implications of the materials used in the product and what is required of the product in terms of withstanding changes over short periods of time and in known environments. 


Contexts for teaching and learning

Learning about basic concepts and techniques used in the preservation, packaging and storage of products can be incorporated into a teaching and learning programme where students process a specified product to meet a brief (refer to PRT 6-1) and link to demonstrating understanding of basic concepts in processing (PRT 6-2) or they may be developing prototypes in the context of their own Technological practice (TP 6-3). This objective and subsequent assessment is about demonstrating understanding and knowledge of basic concepts and techniques used in the preservation, packaging and storage of products while not engaging in the use of these concepts and techniques within the classroom and local environment

Selecting a focus product and environment

The context for this learning objective is a local situation, that is, a specific product within  a particular local environment (for example, a marae, a school camp, home, tramping). This needs to be analysed to give an explanation of why a particular preservation and packaging technique was chosen. For example, a student might explain why they chose to dehydrate apples to preserve for an upcoming tramping trip. 

Students should be exploring a wide range of basic concepts during their learning experiences. This can be achieved by:

  • Visiting production and manufacturing plants and factories
  • Using video clips
  • Working with Futureintech ambassadors
  • Interviewing ( in real time or via Skype) with practicing technologists and industry experts
  • Research via the Internet and hard copy materials
  • Exploring packaging and labelling in the classroom using a  range of products preserved and packaged in different ways
  • Research activities could include a visit to food product manufacturers in your region, or visits from a food technologist. See Futureintech Ambassadors

Encourage students to explore products that are preserved, packaged and stored that have been processed using a range of techniques and have a variety of packaging and labelling examples. Students also need to have a clear understanding of the causes of decay in the specific products being explored these are things such as microbiological growth, separation, loss of colour, loss or gain of moisture, loss of viability, loss of nutritional content, quality loss due to enzymatic action, vibration, and shock and crushing during transport and handling.

Labelling requirements of processed products is a key part of this objective and are those that include but are not limited to those standards required to meet regulations, such as those set by Food Standards Australia New Zealand (FSANZ) or the Standard Association of New Zealand.

Therefore prior to assessment students need to engage in learning experiences that support them developing their knowledge and understanding of:

  • the preservation and packaging techniques chosen for storage in a local environment, to control decay in these products (for example, freeze drying, heat sterilisation, decreasing water activity, ultra- high radiation, vacuum packing, fermenting)
  • the different types of decay that typically occur in the selected products (for example, what happens to the quality of milk once it is packaged and stored at room temperature and distributed to a supermarket and why?)
  • the reasons why these techniques are effective (for example, what preservation and packaging methods prevent various kinds of deterioration and types of decay, and why?)
  • the legal requirements for labelling these preserved products for use in local environments and the reasons for the legal requirements in the national environment
  • the reasons for the use of labelling for in a local environment. 

Students will research and synthesise information to present a report or presentation. The presentation could be in the form of a slide show, display board, portfolio, or written report, and could include annotated flow diagrams with written discussion, photographs and drawings. This presentation/report must clearly communicate the following: 

Literacy considerations

Support students to:

  • research and access credible information, including materials from a range of sources
  • investigate the range of products that include preservation mechanisms in their manufacture
  • synthesise a range of factual information into clear presentations that address the criteria of the standard
  • structure a technical report detailing the concepts outlined above.
  • understand how to structure descriptions, explanations and comparative writing (comparing and contrasting preservation and packaging techniques for a product in a national environment  and discussing why labelling is legally required and how labelling for marketing is used in a local environment)
  • understand the differences between describe, explain and discuss. 

Students will need to develop the skills such as:

  • Researching and processing information
  • Report writing
  • Annotation of diagrams and development of sequencing
  • Referencing

Students will need to be supported in their understanding of how describe, explain and discuss can be exemplified when collecting their evidence for assessment. To be successful students will need to understand the assessment language of describe, explain and discuss.

Note the following definitions

  • to identify is to state an idea
  • to describe is a statement that gives details about the outcome or idea
  • to explain is to describe in detail with reasons – often including the how and why
  • to discuss requires an explanation that is comprehensive, detailed, broad and show evidence of some complexity in thinking. It may be a reasoned argument presenting a particular point of view, a comparison and contrast between tow ideas or concepts or it may be  a detailed reasoning and relationship between several complex ideas

The use of writing frames and structures or templates can be used judiciously to support this. Care must be taken not to over template writing frames which may not allow students to achieve against the criteria.

Key terms and definitions

  • Types of decay may include but are not limited to – microbial growth, separation, loss of colour, loss or gain of moisture, loss of viability, loss of nutritional content.
  • Local environments may include but are not limited to – the home, school canteen, sports club, school camp or marae.  For the purposes of this achievement standard, storage conditions in local environments are limited to – ambient, chilled or frozen.
  • Preservation techniques may include but are not limited to – chilling, freezing, heating, dehydration, control of humidity, provision of nutrients, use of chemical additives (eg salt, sugar, food acid such as vinegar or ascorbic acid).
  • Packaging techniques may include but are not limited to – cellophane and plastic bags, plastic and cardboard boxes, glass and plastic bottles and jars.
  • Types of products may include but are not limited to – fermented or non-fermented foods and beverages; fresh horticultural products; biologically active products; composts; household chemicals; toiletries; cosmetics; wood composites; dyed fibre/cloth; paper; moulded concrete, resin or fibreglass products.

Students could gather and analyse their evidence independently or in groups, but need to prepare their presentations independently.

Resources to support teaching and learning

Indicators of progression:

Case study material

Useful websites:

Websites relating to food, health and workplace safety 

Useful books include:

  • Brown, A. (2007). Understanding Food – Principles and Preparation, 4th Edition. Brooks/Cole.
  • Campbell-Platt, G. (ed). (2009). Food Science and Technology. Wiley Blackwell.
  • Chambers IV, E and Wolf, MB 1996, Sensory Testing Methods, United States.
  • Hallam, E 2005, Understanding Industrial Practices, Nelson Thornes, United Kingdom.
  • Hutton, T 2001, Key Topics in Food Science and Technology No 3, Food Manufacturing: an overview, Campden and Chorleywood Food Research Association Group.
  • Hutton, T. (2001). Food Manufacturing: An Overview (Key topics in Food Science and Technology No 4). Campden & Chorleywood Food Research Association.
  • Hutton, T. (2002). Food Packaging: An Introduction (Key topics in Food Science and Technology No 7). Campden & Chorleywood Food Research Association.
  • Hutton, T. (2005). Food Preservation: An Introduction (Key topics in Food Science and Technology No 9). Campden & Chorleywood Food Research Association.
  • Lyon, D Francombe, M Hasdell, T and Lawson, K 1994, Guidelines for Sensory Analysis in Food Product Development and Quality Control, Chapman and Hall, London, United Kingdom.
  • Murano, P 2002, Understanding Food Science and Technology, Brooks Cole, United States.
  •  Resurreccion, A 1998, Consumer Sensory Testing for Product Development, Aspen Publishers, United States.
  • Smith, K Cantry, Y and Ward, L 2000, Oxford Food Technology Study Dictionary, Oxford University Press, United Kingdom.

Research activities could include a visit to food product manufacturers in your region, or visits from a food technologist. See Futureintech Ambassadors

Assessment for qualifications

The following achievement standard(s) could assess learning outcomes from this learning objective:

  • AS 91084 Processing technologies 1.62: Demonstrate understanding of basic concepts used in preservation and packaging techniques for product storage

Key messages from the standard

  • This standard requires students to demonstrate their understanding of the relationship between preservation, packaging and decay of products. This includes describing the legal requirements for labelling within a local market. In this standard students must at explain the relationship between preservation and packaging techniques and the types of decay and explaining why a particular combination of preservation and packaging techniques was chosen for storage in a local environment. They must also be able to discuss using the compare and contrast model the preservation and packaging techniques for a product in a local environment. This means investigating different ways of preserving and packaging items in a variety of ways.

Students must demonstrate their understanding of basic concepts. To do so they must:

  • describe and explain the links between types of decay and preservation techniques
  • describe how a specific product (e.g. blackberry jam) could effectively be preserved, packaged and stored for a local environment to maintain product integrity over time, and explain why a particular preservation and packaging technique was chosen for this product
  • discuss how to control the storage environment to limit decay of different types of products during storage
  • compare and contrast preservation and packaging techniques for a product (e.g. tomatoes) to be stored in a local environment
  • describe legal requirements for labelling in a local environment
  • discuss why legal labelling is required in a local environment.

To demonstrate excellence understandings students must explore different products requiring diverse preservation and packaging techniques to address decay and storage requirements, for exxample this could be a range of techniques aplied to apples to achieve different end use requirements .

A local environment should be referred to when describing legal requirements for labelling. Making links to relevant regulations would support this description. For example, there are requirements for selling processed foods at road side stalls or farmers markets.

Key terms and explanatory notes:

  • Types of decay may include but are not limited to – microbial growth, separation, loss of colour, loss or gain of moisture, loss of viability, loss of nutritional content.
  • Local environments may include but are not limited to – the home, school canteen, sports club, school camp or marae.  For the purposes of this achievement standard, storage conditions in local environments are limited to – ambient, chilled or frozen.
  • Preservation techniques may include but are not limited to – chilling, freezing, heating, dehydration, control of humidity, provision of nutrients, use of chemical additives (eg salt, sugar, food acid such as vinegar or ascorbic acid).
  • Packaging techniques may include but are not limited to – cellophane and plastic bags, plastic and cardboard boxes, glass and plastic bottles and jars.
  • Types of products may include but are not limited to – fermented or non-fermented foods and beverages; fresh horticultural products; biologically active products; composts; household chemicals; toiletries; cosmetics; wood composites; dyed fibre/cloth; paper; moulded concrete, resin or fibreglass products.

For the most up to date information, teachers should be referring to the latest version of the standards, conditions of assessment and assessment resources on TKI and the moderators reports, clarifications documents and student exemplars on the NZQA website. See links below.

Resources to support student achievement

Assessment resources:

Annotated Exemplars

Last updated September 28, 2018



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