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Curriculum strands

Specialist strands

AOs/LOs by level

Technological practice (TP)

6-1 | 6-2 | 6-3

7-1 | 7-2 | 7-3

8-1 | 8-2 | 8-3

Technological knowledge (TK)

6-1 | 6-2 | 6-3

7-1 | 7-2 | 7-3

8-1 | 8-2 | 8-3

Nature of technology (NT)

6-1 | 6-2

7-1 | 7-2

8-1 | 8-2

Design in technology (DET)

6-1 | 6-2

7-1 | 7-2


Manufacturing (MFG)

6-1 | 6-2

7-1 | 7-2


Technical areas (TCA)


Construction and mechanical technologies (CMT)

6-1 | 6-2 | 6-3 | 6-4

6-5 | 6-6 | 6-7

7-1 |  7-2 |  7-3 |  7-4

7-5 |  7-6 |  7-7

8-1 | 8-2 | 8-3 | 8-4

8-5 | 8-6 | 8-7

Design and visual communication (DVC)

6-1 | 6-2 | 6-3

7-1 | 7-2 | 7-3

8-1 | 8-2 | 8-3

Digital technologies (DTG)

6-1 | 6-2 | 6-3 | 6-4

6-5 | 6-6 | 6-7 | 6-8

6-9 | 6-10 | 6-11 | 6-12

7-1 |  7-2 |  7-3 |  7-4

7-5 |  7-6 |  7-7 |  7-8

7-9 |  7-10 |  7-11 |  7-12

8-1 | 8-2 | 8-3 | 8-4

8-5 |  8-6/7 | 8-8 | 8-9

8-10 |  8-11 | 8-12

Processing technologies (PRT)

6-1 | 6-2 | 6-3

7-1 | 7-2 | 7-3

8-1/2 | 8-3

Construct a textiles product CMT 7-2

Achievement standard 2.21 AS91345

Construct a textile materials product requires students to implement techniques and procedures and undertake tests to make specified products using textile materials.

Textile materials refer to a group of materials that are commonly grouped together because they show certain common characteristics. These materials include but are not limited to: natural and synthetic fibres, yarns, knits and woven fabrics.

Constructing using textile materials requires particular techniques and procedures to be undertaken to enable materials to be skilfully and safely measured, cut, shaped, joined, and finished to make quality products. Advanced techniques are required to craft special features of a high standard in a product and rely on the consistent application to achieve a desired effect. Special features, structural, style and/or decorative, include such things as: set in sleeve, fly front, tailored collars and cuffs, welt pocket, embroidering, shirring.

Achievement objective: CMT 7-2

Students will:

  • implement advanced procedures to make a textiles product.


Students can:

  • undertake advanced procedures to construct a product with special features that meets specifications
  • select and apply scheduled techniques to comply with relevant health and safety regulations
  • show independence and accuracy in executing the scheduled techniques and tests
  • undertake techniques and tests in a manner that economises time, effort, and materials.


At level 6, students learn to perform basic procedures by implementing a given sequence of techniques and tests to make a quality textile product that meets specifications. At level 7, students progress to performing advanced procedures in order to make a specified product that incorporates two special features.

Teacher guidance

To support students to implement advanced procedures to make a textile materials product at level 7, teachers could:

  • ensure students are aware of a wide range of measuring, cutting, shaping, joining and finishing techniques
  • provide students with the opportunity to discuss what is meant by advanced procedures; that is, procedures that require the student to make informed selection and scheduling of techniques and testing to make the product, and undertaking evaluative tests to demonstrate the final product meets specifications
  • provide opportunity for students to explore and discuss advanced procedures in terms of skilfulness and efficiency
  • ensure students have an appropriate environment, tools, and materials to enable students to work safely with textile materials to make a product
  • provide opportunity to explore what techniques or procedures are most suitable for use with a variety of textile materials
  • provide students with the opportunity to schedule and practice a range of techniques and tests to develop quality products (this may be through completing a range of individual products and/or joint class projects).

Contexts for teaching and learning

  • This learning objective is about implementing advanced procedures to make a textiles product with special features. However, within a programme of work it is possible to link these skills with knowledge of advanced concepts used to make textile products (refer to learning objective CMT 7-4 Knowledge of textiles construction).
  • Provide students with the opportunity to explore what is meant by advanced procedures; for example, procedures that require the student to make informed selection and scheduling, such as planning and management of at least two techniques and testing to make a specified product.
  • Provide students with examples of advanced techniques; support them to trial a range of these and discuss them in terms of skilfulness and efficiency. In doing so, students should explore evaluative tests that they will use to demonstrate that the final product meets specification. Using a range of equipment and techniques that comply with relevant health and safety practices is an essential part of this process.
  • Students select the techniques required to make their product. They need to trial/practice techniques and use information from testing to inform the decisions made when selecting appropriate techniques.
  • Students will be required to develop and use a construction order and production sequence when making their product. Conference with students and support them during the establishment of an order of construction and the making of the product.
  • Teachers and students should be familiar with Safety in Technology Education: A Guidance Manual for New Zealand Schools and the implications of the relevant sections when it comes to students implementing their construction processes.

In addition to their construction plan, students must complete tests to demonstrate that the final product meets specifications. They need to make on-going checks throughout the production of the product, not just a one-off check at the end, in order to meet the specifications for the outcome. Students should also record their evaluation and show their decision making where modifications needed to be made.

Literacy considerations

A construction sequence is a plan that describes the order in which the item is made and, in this instance, how the special features are sequenced and applied. Students should have been exposed to learning activities that support the annotation of diagrams, sequencing of tasks, and use of testing schedules.

As this is an implementation learning objective the focus on gathering evidence for assessment should be kept manageable, which can be compiled from a range of information and could include annotated diagrams, photographs or explanations of a technique or test (see below).

Resources to support teaching and learning

Technology Online case study material



  • Couture Sewing Techniques – Caire Shaeffer
  • Threads Magazine – available at good book stores
  • Power Sewing Toolbox 1 & 2 – Sandra Betzina, Taunton Press Inc. 2010 USA.
  • More Fabric Savvy – Sandra Betzina, Taunton Press Inc. 2004 USA.
  • Fine Machine Sewing: Easy Ways to get the Look of Hand Finishing and Embellishing – Carol Laflin, Ahles Taunton Press Inc. 2004 USA.


  • 2010 Threads Archive DVD-ROM available from Taunton Store
  • Threads Industry Insider Techniques DVD, Vol.1 and Vol. 2, available from  Taunton Store

Assessment for qualifications

The following achievement standard(s) could assess learning outcomes from this learning objective:

  • AS91345 Construction and mechanical technologies 2.21: Implement advanced procedures using textile material to make a specified product with special features

Key messages from the standard

The specifications (including material specifications) for the product being made must be clear. These need to be agreed prior to the product being made and may be teacher-given or developed in negotiation with the student. The product must include at least two special features, selecting from styles and/or decorative special features and/or structural. Explanatory note 7 lists some possible examples.

At level 7 the student must determine the methods to be used to construct these special features and schedule these into a construction plan.

Students will need to understand the following terminology for this standard

  • EN4 Specified product refers to a product with required special features and its relevant specifications, including material specifications. The specifications must be of sufficient rigour to allow the student to meet the standard. The specifications need to be agreed prior to the product being made. They may be teacher-given or developed in negotiation with the student.
  • EN5 Advanced procedures are those that require advanced skills. The student must select and perform techniques that need scheduling to achieve the special features.
  • EN6 Scheduling refers to such things as planning construction orders or a production sequence.
  • EN7 Special features are those that rely on the application of advanced skills. These include but are not limited to: 
    • style features, such as set in sleeve, fly front, tailored collars and cuffs, welt pockets; and/or 
    • decorative features such as pin tucking, embroidery, and shirring; and/or 
    • structural features such as 3D felting and combining different fibres in felting and different materials.
  • EN8 Tests may include but are not limited to: measuring, trialling techniques, fitting, and visual checks.

Two approaches are possible when using this standard for assessment

  1. The students are given a pattern (or patterns, from which they choose one) that includes at least two special features. The whole class then makes the same product or one of the alternatives. The teacher may select the pattern or patterns and the special features in discussion with the class. They may also allow individual students to negotiate a variation of the selected pattern and special features.
  2. The students have been engaged in technological practice and are now at the point where they have fully established the specifications for their outcome, which must include at least two special features, and are ready to construct it.

In either case, before they begin to make their product, ensure that:

  • each student has a set of specifications for the product (see the student instructions for an example)  
    • the specifications need to be agreed prior to the product being made; they may be teacher given or developed in negotiation with the student 
  • the selected materials and special features provide sufficient scope for the student to meet the requirements of the standard 
  • the student is familiar with the methods they will need to use to construct the special features and how the various steps need to be scheduled in a construction plan 
  • the student knows and applies the accepted codes of practice for their special features, and the testing (checking) that is required to complete them to meet the specifications and to a high standard
  • the student has access to an appropriate work environment and to the tools and materials they will need to safely make their product.

It is essential that prior to beginning construction, students find out about different methods that could be used to create the selected special features. For example, a pattern may outline one method, however, there may be other ways that ensure a better quality outcome. Students will need to trial and select a method that will enable them to achieve the best quality outcome. They will need to determine what checks (tests) to carry out to ensure that the finished product is of high quality.

Before commencement, students must decide (schedule) the order in which to carry out the various steps involved in the construction of the special features. The pattern may have suggested an overall order of construction – students need to confirm what they will use and/or schedule an alternative order that incorporates selected special features into the construction plan.

Recording and assessing evidence

As the teacher, you need to be able to demonstrate that your judgments are soundly based. This means some recording of evidence is necessary.

The recording of evidence ensures that students understand the basis on which they are being judged and confirms that the teacher’s judgments are made on a sound basis.

In this assessment, students are asked to keep a record of progress and how they have resolved problems. As students are being assessed on their ability to make a product, this recording process does not need to become too consuming. For example, students could annotate their construction plans. You could add your own observations to the students’ records.

Students could also provide evidence by:

  • establishing a schedule of tests (for example, what tests will be done and when they will be done) and recording the outcomes of tests as they apply them 
  • taking and annotating photos to show economic use of materials (for example, by photographing layout) and accuracy 
  • annotating the construction plan to record what was done and how problems were solved and which checks were used. Make sure that this record includes all testing. You could include annotated photographs and a completed testing checklist.

Teachers must be able to justify their judgments by providing evidence based on classroom observations and discussions with students. This could take the form of checklists and annotations to student photographs.


  • Accuracy – in the quality of the finished product and in terms of how well it meets the specifications.
  • Independence – the level of teacher input required and from classroom observation of student practice.
  • Economy of time – by observation of how effectively students organise themselves, look after their resources so that they can quickly pick up where they left off last period, the order in which they undertake techniques to minimise downtime, and the ability to plan ahead to avoid wasting time.
  • Economy of effort – the extent to which a student knows what to do and gets on and does it rather than relying on trial and error, how they use data from testing to guide next practice, and the choice of the correct tool for the task. It can be gauged from the student’s dated log entries and from classroom observation.
  • Economy of resources – the extent to which a student minimises the use or waste of materials.
  • Students may also demonstrate an economy of time, effort and resources in one action. For example, students could chose the correct tool for the task, which saves them time and effort and minimises wastage as the tool chosen allowed for the task to be completed accurately the first time.
  • Economy of time and effort will be commonly linked.

Resources to support student achievement

Last updated June 8, 2018