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8-1/2

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6-1 | 6-2

7-1 | 7-2

8-1/2

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8-1 

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6-1 | 6-2 | 6-3 | 6-4

6-5 | 6-6 | 6-7

7-1 |  7-2 |  7-3 |  7-4

7-5 |  7-6 |  7-7

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6-1 | 6-2 | 6-3

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8-1 | 8-2 | 8-3

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6-1 | 6-2 | 6-3 | 6-4

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7-5 |  7-6 |  7-7 |  7-8

7-9 |  7-10 |  7-11 |  7-12

8-1 | 8-2 | 8-3 | 8-4

8-5 |  8-6/7 | 8-8 | 8-9

8-10 |  8-11 | 8-12

Processing technologies (PRT)

6-1 | 6-2 | 6-3

7-1 | 7-2 | 7-3

8-1/2 | 8-3


Outcome development and evaluation TP 7-3

Achievement standards 2.3 AS91356 and 2.4 AS91357

Outcome development and evaluation can involve developing conceptual designs, or products and systems from an initial idea to a fully realised outcome that is evaluated in situ.

Outcome development and evaluation relies on the use and/or development of constructive skills and knowledge – including those associated with working with materials and components. Note that this achievement objective covers conceptual design and prototype development, which are assessed by two separate standards 2.3 and 2.4 respectively.

Achievement objectives: TP7-3

Students will:

  • critically analyse their own and others’ outcomes and evaluative practices to inform the development of ideas for feasible outcomes. 
  • Undertake a critical evaluation that is informed by ongoing experimentation and functional modelling, stakeholder feedback, and trialling in the physical and social environments. 
  • Use the information gained to select, justify, and develop an outcome. 
  • Evaluate this outcome’s fitness for purpose against the brief. Justify the evaluation using feedback from stakeholders and demonstrate a critical understanding of the issue.

Indicators

Students can:

  • generate design ideas that are informed by research and critical analysis of existing outcomes
  • develop design ideas for outcomes that are justified as feasible with evidence gained through functional modelling
  • critically analyse evaluative practices used when functional modelling, to inform own functional modelling
  • undertake functional modelling to evaluate design ideas, and develop and test a conceptual design to provide evidence of the proposed outcome’s ability to be fit for purpose
  • evaluate suitability of materials/components, based on their performance properties, to select those appropriate for use in the production of a feasible outcome
  • undertake prototyping to gain specific evidence of an outcome's fitness for purpose and use this to justify any decisions to refine, modify and/or accept the outcome as final
  • use stakeholder feedback and an understanding of the physical and social requirements of where the outcome will be situated to support and justify key design decisions and evaluations of fitness for purpose.

Progression

Previously at level 6, students used design ideas to produce a conceptual design and undertake the development of a prototype. At level 7, students will progress to generating and evaluating design ideas and conceptual designs that are informed by ongoing research, using synthesised evidence from research, functional modelling, and stakeholder feedback, and evaluate, select and communicate the final conceptual design explaining its potential fitness for purpose. Students will also work towards undertaking ongoing exploration and evaluation during the development of the conceptual design and prototyping phases and use synthesised evidence to substantiate potential fitness for purpose. Students at level 7 are expected to demonstrate complex thinking that shows synthesis of a range of concepts to reach a conclusion.

Teacher guidance

To support students to undertake outcome development and evaluation at level 7, teachers could:

  • ensure that there is a brief with clear specifications against which a developed outcome can be evaluated
  • establish an environment that supports student innovation and encourages critical analysis of existing outcomes
  • support students to critically analyse evaluative practices used within functional modelling
  • support students to develop drawing and modelling skills to communicate and explore design ideas – emphasis should be on progressing 2D and 3D drawing skills and increasing the range and complexity of functional modelling
  • support students to explore a range of materials/components, and to develop the necessary knowledge and skills to evaluate and make effective use of them
  • support students to undertake prototyping to gain evidence that enables clear judgments regarding the outcome’s fitness for purpose and determine the need for any changes to enhance the outcome
  • support students to gain targeted stakeholder feedback and understand the implications of the physical and social environment in which the outcome is to be located.

Contexts for teaching and learning

  • Provide a suitable teaching and learning programme that investigates the requirements and processes involved in developing and testing conceptual designs and prototypes for product development. This could come from case studies or by inviting a professional technologist to talk to the student.
  • Undertake research and use this to inform their work, to sift, sort and synthesise information. Synthesising information is about assessing the new information and prior information in relation to each other, looking for logical relationships in the material, identifying the important ideas, and taking a critical attitude towards the material by relating it to the student view and experiences, and thinking about how the material can be used. Synthesising information is not just summarising the information or identifying main points.
  • Students need to learn how to generate ideas – give them inspiration and practice analysing and critiquing the ideas and designs of others. Use such things as the Six Thinking Hats methodology – Green Hat (De Bono), or Thinkers Keys (Pohl).
  • Use specific activities to teach students to analyse and critically evaluate ideas and concepts, such as mind-mapping, brainstorming, force field analysis, six thinking hats.
  • Generate and evaluate design ideas for conceptual designs and use evaluation tools and graphic organisers to explain and justify ideas for possible inclusion in the design.
  • Support students to develop a sound understanding of types and purpose of functional modelling and undertake functional modelling that:
    • explores and evaluates developing design ideas and conceptual designs 
    • gathers evidence on all aspects of the outcome, including its likely technical feasibility and social acceptability.
  • Support students to use and explore a range of modelling techniques and other ways to gain critical feedback from a client, mentors and/or other identified stakeholders from the wider community to guide the development of an outcome to meet the requirements of a brief.
  • Support students to keep a record that documents the development of the conceptual design and/or prototype that includes:
    • evaluating their practical techniques and processes to determine the suitability for use in developing a conceptual design or a prototype 
    • exploring a range of materials/components, and to develop the necessary knowledge and skills to evaluate and make effective use of them 
    • undertaking prototyping to gain evidence that enables clear judgments regarding the outcome’s fitness for purpose and determine the need for any changes to enhance the outcome 
    • gaining targeted on-going stakeholder feedback and understanding the implications of the physical and social environment in which the outcome is to be located, and justify key decisions and evaluations of fitness for purpose.
  • Schedule regular progress checkpoints throughout the activity.
  • When developing the outcome, teachers will need to support students to:
    • work in a safe manner that is aligned to current codes of practice and Health and Safety guidelines
    • consider the wider social and physical environment in which their outcome is to be situated
    • develop, communicate, and evaluate design ideas and conceptual designs and use evaluation tools and graphic organisers to explain and justify ideas for possible inclusion in the design
    • communicate design ideas both graphically and in an annotated format
    • undertake research and use this to inform their work, to sift, sort and synthesise information
      • synthesising information is about assessing the new information and prior information in relation to each other, looking for logical relationships in the material, identifying the important ideas, and taking a critical attitude towards the material by relating it to your own views and experiences and thinking about how the material can be used; synthesising information is not just summarising the information or identifying main points
    • explain an outcome's fitness for purpose using tools to evaluate and give reasons for the proposed outcomes potential fitness for purpose
    • build/create/make the prototype and trial it to gain specific information/evidence to say how it met fitness for purpose
      • a prototype will be developed using a variety of techniques and using evidence to prove the prototype has met the requirements of the brief and therefore be fit for purpose 
    • reflect on what worked and what modifications they would make to ensure it meets all the specifications and considers how it is fit for purpose 
    • use evidence from on-going research and functional modelling, including stakeholder feedback
    • synthesise evidence where they will bring all aspects of the information and evidence together
    • substantiate the outcome’s potential fitness for purpose, that is, using evidence to prove the conceptual design has the potential to meet the requirements of the brief and therefore be potentially fit for purpose, and moving to substantiating the realised outcome as being for purpose when tested in its intended location.

It is useful to consider the teaching and learning related to outcome development and evaluation as a package, as the components of technology identified below all support student’s effective practice to develop conceptual designs, make, and trial a prototype. The process of developing conceptual designs and/or developing a prototype can be a result of learning that is contained within other components of the curriculum; such as, technological modelling, technological products, and characteristics of technological outcomes.

Literacy considerations

Students may need support to confidently communicate in writing (or other means) the following:

  • Design ideas that have been used to initiate decision making and act as a catalyst throughout the development of a conceptual design.
  • A conceptual design that clearly communicates a proposed technological outcome that has the potential to address the brief. This should include a detailed description of how the outcome would look and function. Conceptual designs can be presented using a variety of techniques, which may include but are not limited to: freehand sketches, diagrams, technical drawings, scale models, computer simulations, interactive PDFs, written descriptions, details of materials, and components and/or assembly instructions.
  • Potential fitness for purpose of the conceptual design referring to the likelihood of the outcome (in this case it may be the final conceptual design, or in further development stages the actual fitness for purpose of the prototype) to address the requirements of the brief. Note: the brief must allow for the development of a range of outcomes and can be teacher or student directed.
  • Functional modelling will also be used to explore, develop, and evaluate design ideas and conceptual designs. Functional modelling will also enable the gathering of evidence on all aspects of the conceptual design including technical feasibility and social acceptability.
  • Judgment of the proposed outcome’s fitness for purpose. Judgments about fitness for purpose may include considerations of the outcome’s technical and social acceptability.
  • Students will be required to evaluate the prototypes’ fitness for purpose against the selected issue, and context, and the developed brief.
  • A prototype is a completed outcome that is yet to be fully implemented. It is developed through technological practice and is reflective of relevant codes of practice. Prototyping is the trialling of the prototype to gain evidence for the evaluation of the outcome’s fitness for purpose in its intended physical and social environment (context).
  • A conceptual design clearly communicates a proposed technological outcome that has the potential to address the brief. It is a detailed description of how the outcome would look and function. Conceptual designs can be presented using a variety of techniques, which may include but are not limited to: freehand sketches, diagrams, technical drawings, scale models, computer simulations, written descriptions, details of materials, and components and/or assembly instructions.
  • Potential fitness for purpose in relation to the conceptual design refers to the likelihood of the outcome addressing the brief.
  • Fitness for purpose refers to the outcome’s ability to address a brief when situated in its intended location.

Resources to support teaching and learning

Case studies relating to conceptual design

General resources

Assessment for qualifications

Note: This achievement objective covers conceptual design and prototype development, which is assessed in two different standards 2.3 and 2.4 respectively:

  • AS91356 Generic technology 2.3: Develop a conceptual design for an outcome.
  • AS91357 Generic technology 2.4: Undertake effective development to make and trial a prototype

Key messages for the two standards related to outcome development and evaluation can be found on the following pages:

Last updated May 29, 2018



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