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Technological practice (TP)

6-1 | 6-2 | 6-3

7-1 | 7-2 | 7-3

8-1 | 8-2 | 8-3

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6-1 | 6-2 | 6-3

7-1 | 7-2 | 7-3

8-1 | 8-2 | 8-3

Nature of technology (NT)

6-1 | 6-2

7-1 | 7-2

8-1 | 8-2

Design in technology (DET)

6-1 | 6-2

7-1 | 7-2

8-1/2

Manufacturing (MFG)

6-1 | 6-2

7-1 | 7-2

8-1/2

Technical areas (TCA)

8-1 

Construction and mechanical technologies (CMT)

6-1 | 6-2 | 6-3 | 6-4

6-5 | 6-6 | 6-7

7-1 |  7-2 |  7-3 |  7-4

7-5 |  7-6 |  7-7

8-1 | 8-2 | 8-3 | 8-4

8-5 | 8-6 | 8-7

Design and visual communication (DVC)

6-1 | 6-2 | 6-3

7-1 | 7-2 | 7-3

8-1 | 8-2 | 8-3

Digital technologies (DTG)

6-1 | 6-2 | 6-3 | 6-4

6-5 | 6-6 | 6-7 | 6-8

6-9 | 6-10 | 6-11 | 6-12

7-1 |  7-2 |  7-3 |  7-4

7-5 |  7-6 |  7-7 |  7-8

7-9 |  7-10 |  7-11 |  7-12

8-1 | 8-2 | 8-3 | 8-4

8-5 |  8-6/7 | 8-8 | 8-9

8-10 |  8-11 | 8-12

Processing technologies (PRT)

6-1 | 6-2 | 6-3

7-1 | 7-2 | 7-3

8-1/2 | 8-3


Technological modelling TK 7-1

Achievement standard 2.5 AS91358

Technological modelling refers to the modelling practices used to enhance technological developments and includes functional modelling and prototyping. Through technological modelling, evidence is gathered to justify decision making within technological practice. Decisions as a result of technological modelling may include the termination of the development or a continuation of the development as planned.

Achievement objective: TK 7-1

Students will:

  • understand how the “should” and “could” decisions in technological modelling rely on an understanding of how evidence can change in value across contexts and how different tools are used to ascertain and mitigate risk.

Indicators

Students can:

  • discuss examples to illustrate why the status of evidence gained from technological modelling might change across contexts
  • explain why different people accept different types of evidence as valid and how this impacts on technological modelling
  • explain the role of technological modelling in ascertaining and mitigating risk 
  • describe examples to illustrate the strengths and weaknesses of technological modelling for risk mitigation.

Progression

At level 6, students should understand the role and nature of evidence and reasoning when managing risk through technological modelling. Students should understand functional reasoning (the basis for exploring technical feasibility) and practical reasoning (the basis for exploring acceptability).

At level 7, the role of technological modelling in ascertaining and mitigating risk is developed further. Also at level 7, students will understand how the results from technological modelling can be different across different contexts or perceived differently by different groups of stakeholders.

Teacher guidance

To support students to understand the role of technological modelling at level 7, teachers could:

  • support students to explore how context impacts on the perception of the validity of evidence presented; therefore, shifting from one context to another can change the status of the evidence provided by technological modelling 
  • support students to explore how and why different people and communities accept different types of evidence as valid; that is, the status given to evidence is dependent on a range of factors including ethical views and the perceived authority of people involved in the presentation of the evidence
  • support students to understand how decisions underpinning technological modelling based on what should and could happen, rely on an understanding of how evidence gained may differ in value across contexts and/or communities
  • support students to understand how technological modelling is used to ascertain and mitigate risk. 
    • ascertaining risk involves establishing the probability of identified risks
    • mitigation involves taking steps to reduce the probability of the risk being realised and/or severity of the risk should it be realised
  • support students to analyse examples of technological modelling to understand how risk is ascertained and mitigated within particular technological developments
  • examples should include the modelling practices of technologists and should include instances where modelling was undertaken to mitigate risk.

Contexts for teaching and learning

  • Understandings of technological modelling at this level need to be developed beyond just the modelling students are actually engaged in themselves as part of their own practice. Students should be given the opportunity to look at the modelling practices of other technologists. Case studies, guest speakers, industry visits, and research are all appropriate ways to develop understanding of technological modelling.
  • Provide students access to case studies that describe the technological modelling practices used by technologists. For example:
  • Teachers need to spend time helping students understand the concepts of what "should" and "could" be done. This builds on and relates to the functional and practical reasoning that is important at level 6 and forms the foundation at this level. Functional reasoning (what could happen) is about technical feasibility, and this seems easier for students to understand. Teachers need to guide students to understand practical reasoning (what should happen) in terms of exploring social acceptability. This can possibly be done using an example of an unsuccessful product and getting students to discuss how modelling could have helped decisions about what "should" and "could" be done. In teaching this concept, students can often be drawn in to understanding this concept by taking on the roles of different age groups or different responsibilities in a business and role play their reaction to certain products. For example, reactions to such things as a blue tooth amplifier at the neighbour’s barbecue, or mobile phones in the workplace.
  • Level 7 introduces the idea of thinking about the risk in terms of type, severity, and probability of risk. Teachers can help students by providing examples and opportunities to discuss risk and explore how technological modelling can be used to manage risk. Teachers should ensure students understand that risk is not just about risk to their safety but rather the risk of the outcome not functioning as intended. Technological modelling is used to manage those risks.

Literacy considerations

  • Support students to understand the language associated with the technological modelling achievement objective. For example "functional modelling", "prototyping", "malfunction", "risk".
  • In this objective “should” and “could” have very specific meanings and students need to understand they mean something specific rather than the everyday common meanings of the words. “Could” decisions relate to the technical feasibility; for example, is it possible to create this outcome given the technical difficulty or materials available? “Should” decisions relate to the social and moral/ethical acceptability; for example, should we create a high salt, fat and sugar content snack food to be sold in school canteens given the Healthy Eating Guidelines for Teenagers?
  • Support students in developing writing frames to guide their thinking. Students also need to understand the meaning of the following terms in relation to what they are trying to communicate about the technological modelling:
    • an explanation requires reasons as to how or why 
    • a discussion will require an explanation that is comprehensive, detailed, broad and shows evidence of some complexity in thinking.

Resources to support student achievement

Assessment for qualifications

The following achievement standard(s) could assess learning outcomes from this achievement objective:

  • AS91358 Generic technology 2.5: Demonstrate understanding of how technological modelling supports risk management

Key messages from the standard

  • Technological modelling refers to both functional modelling and prototyping (see explanatory note 3). Teachers need to ensure students understand both these aspects of technological modelling and include evidence about both functional modelling and prototyping.
  • This standard is about demonstrating understanding of how modelling supports risk management. It’s not just about "doing" modelling. Although students can use their own technological practice as a basis for preparing their report, the focus must clearly be on demonstrating understanding of how the technological modelling supports risk management. Students cannot just submit a portfolio showing this is the modelling I did! Students’ portfolios are strengthened by comparing their own technological modelling with that of practicing technologists.
  • The focus at level 7 is about using modelling to manage risk. Explanatory note 4 provides a simple explanation of what risk management means. Risk management refers to reducing the potential for malfunction and/or increasing the level of success of technological outcomes. Teachers need to ensure students understand this concept of how modelling can be used to manage risk. For example, students could explore the risk, what might happen (for example, a furniture joint gives way under pressure), and the consequences which could vary in type and severity.
  • A new concept at level 7 is the idea that different forms of modelling will be used with different stakeholder groups. For example, if you are developing a website for the school the way you use modelling with other students will be quite different to the modelling done with the principal or board of trustees.
  • Students need to develop a clear understanding of the different forms of modelling and which forms are appropriate for use with different stakeholders, depending on different stages of the development. So the modelling undertaken early on in practice, when you are still exploring different possible outcomes, could be quite different to the modelling undertaken when the outcome is nearing completion.
  • Ensure students know how to write a report that meets the requirements as set out in the assessment specifications and covers everything asked for in the standard. Teachers need to support students to understand what evidence needs to be included in the report. Breaking the writing task down into a series of tasks could be done by taking the assessment criteria in explanatory note 2 and re-phrase these into questions. For example:
    • for achieved 
      Why are different forms of modelling used to manage risk?
      Why are different forms of modelling used with different stakeholder groups?
      How were different forms of modelling used to decide what "could" be done and what "should" be done?
    • for merit  
      How did modelling enable the identification of the type, severity, and probability of risk?
      Why were different forms of modelling selected at different stages of technological practice to inform what "could" be done and what "should" be done?
    • for excellence 
      Why were different forms of modelling used with different stakeholder groups?

It is important that students only submit material they understand. They should write in their own words about their own technological experiences, which includes investigating the practices of others, case studies, and visiting experts as well as their own technological practice. Students should reference material that is not their own using appropriate referencing at the point of use. The use of information from other sources can assist the candidate to demonstrate understanding only where the candidate uses the information by one or more of the following:

  • interpreting or rewriting the information in their own words
  • relating the information to a specific context or example
  • commenting meaningfully on the information.

Resources to support student achievement

Last updated February 20, 2018



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