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8-1 | 8-2 | 8-3

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8-1 | 8-2

Design in technology (DET)

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7-1 | 7-2

8-1/2

Manufacturing (MFG)

6-1 | 6-2

7-1 | 7-2

8-1/2

Technical areas (TCA)

8-1 

Construction and mechanical technologies (CMT)

6-1 | 6-2 | 6-3 | 6-4

6-5 | 6-6 | 6-7

7-1 |  7-2 |  7-3 |  7-4

7-5 |  7-6 |  7-7

8-1 | 8-2 | 8-3 | 8-4

8-5 | 8-6 | 8-7

Design and visual communication (DVC)

6-1 | 6-2 | 6-3

7-1 | 7-2 | 7-3

8-1 | 8-2 | 8-3

Digital technologies (DTG)

6-1 | 6-2 | 6-3 | 6-4

6-5 | 6-6 | 6-7 | 6-8

6-9 | 6-10 | 6-11 | 6-12

7-1 |  7-2 |  7-3 |  7-4

7-5 |  7-6 |  7-7 |  7-8

7-9 |  7-10 |  7-11 |  7-12

8-1 | 8-2 | 8-3 | 8-4

8-5 |  8-6/7 | 8-8 | 8-9

8-10 |  8-11 | 8-12

Processing technologies (PRT)

6-1 | 6-2 | 6-3

7-1 | 7-2 | 7-3

8-1/2 | 8-3


Knowledge of processing PRT 7-2

Achievement standard 2.61 AS91352

Knowledge of processing focuses on the underpinning concepts associated with processing.

Learning objective: PRT 7-2

Students will:

  • demonstrate understanding of advanced techniques involved in processing materials.

Indicators

Students can:

  • identify advanced techniques used in processing materials 
  • describe how processing operations and tests can be combined in a processing sequence 
  • explain why specific tests are used in processing operations.

Progression

Initially students learn about the operations and practices inherent to processing. At level 7, students will progress to advanced understandings that enable them to explain, evaluate, and justify a broad range of operations and practices related to processing.

Teacher guidance

To support students to develop understandings about advanced techniques involved in processing materials at level 7, teachers could:

  • support students with their understanding of how advanced techniques are implemented in processing materials 
  • present a range of advanced processing operations such as cell counting, emulsifying, and centrifuging 
  • ensure students understand the difference between health and safety in the classroom and industry.

Contexts for teaching and learning

Choosing the context for the learning and assessment

Learning about advanced concepts to process products can be incorporated into a teaching and learning programme where students make a specified product to meet a brief (refer to PRT 7-1). This objective and subsequent assessment is about demonstrating understanding and knowledge of advanced concepts to process a product while not necessarily making a specified product.

Students will need to explore the following concepts in processing prior to undertaking assessment.

This objective requires students to demonstrate their comprehensive understanding of advanced concepts used in processing a specified product.

The focus of the learning and subsequent assessment is on understanding the processes, the tests used to ensure quality control during the processing, and the health and safety regulations followed to produce a variety of processed products. Students will investigate the similarities and differences between the processing, testing, and health and safety regulations used when processing materials into products in industry with processing the same products in the classroom or domestic environment.

They will also need to use a selection of symbols, diagrams, photographs, and annotations to visually explain how processing and testing to produce a specific product can be combined in a processing sequence.

Suggested learning activities could include:

  • Visit a food or other material processing plant to identify and discuss the processing operations. It is not necessary for the plant to be a specific processing plant as food or similar plants share common processing operations. Videos and websites may provide a similar experience if this is not feasible.
  • Examine a range of products made from a specific material and discuss how they may have been made and tested during production. (Not the assessment material but similar context.)
  • Practice processing and testing similar products in the classroom. Students should consider the differences in equipment, volumes, packaging, testing and labour (noting specialised tasks) between the classroom and an industrial setting.
  • Discuss and design tests for a classroom setting that would mimic those they have seen in the industrial setting for processing products. The assessment resource in a food context gives some examples of testing that could be carried out in the classroom to mimic testing in an industrial potato processing operation. Resource B is an example of a simple classroom test that has been developed to test the colour of a product. Students should be familiar with responses to testing.
  • Analyse existing and practice drawing flow diagrams to visually depict processing operations to develop an understanding of the symbols used, how to put them in the correct order, and how to show where tests occur and where they impact on the processing (for example, feedback loops such as pre-fry – if pre-frying is not giving the right result, then recalibrate machines).
  • Research the operations used for the disposal of waste products and the cleaning of the potato processing plant. Compare these with waste disposal and cleaning in a classroom setting when processing potato products.
  • Research the documentation required in industry during a food processing operation and compare this with similar classroom processes.
  • Research the health and safety regulations used in industry, such as food safety plans, Food and Hygiene Regulations 1974, HACCP and OSH regulations, and where these are used in processing potato products in an industrial setting. Compare these health and safety practices with those used in a classroom setting.

Literacy considerations

Students must understand the requirements of the learning objective and the scope of processing to include the following concepts:

Processing refers to the combining and/or manipulating of materials to make a product. Processing operations for this achievement standard include:

  • one or more of – measuring/shaping/forming, for example, automated filling, cell counting, aggregating, rotational moulding
  • one or more of – contamination prevention/disposal, for example, chemical cleaning, waste water treatment, solid waste disposal, environmentally sustainable practices, protective clothing and industrial hygiene
  • one or more of – mixing/extracting/separating/growing, for example, emulsifying, enrobing, dehydrating, filtering, crystallising, chemical peeling, centrifuging, adsorption, gravity settling, leaching, solvent extraction, plant tissue culturing
  • one or more of – heating/cooling/reacting, for example, melting, coagulating, gelling, gelatinising, denaturing, evaporating, fermenting, controlling non-enzymatic browning, plate and blast freezing
  • one or more of – materials transfer, for example, pumping, piping, air conveying.

Students will need to develop the skills such as:

  • researching and processing information
  • report writing
  • annotation of diagrams and development of sequencing
  • referencing

Students will need to be supported in their understanding of how describe, explain, and discuss can be exemplified when collecting their evidence for assessment. To be successful, students will need to understand the assessment language of describe, explain and discussNote the following definitions:

  • to identify is to state an idea
  • to describe is a statement that gives details about the outcome or idea
  • to explain is to describe in detail with reasons – often including the how and why
  • to discuss requires an explanation that is comprehensive, detailed, broad and shows evidence of some complexity in thinking. It may be a reasoned argument presenting a particular point of view, a comparison and contrast between two ideas or concepts, or it may be a detailed reasoning and relationship between several complex ideas.

The use of writing frames and structures or templates can be used judiciously to support this. Care must be taken not to over template writing forms, which may not allow students to achieve against the criteria.

Resources to support teaching and learning

Case study material

Food

Resin jewellery and products

Concrete ornaments

Other

Books

  • Chambers IV, E and Wolf, MB 1996, Sensory Testing Methods, United States.
  • Murano, P 2002, Understanding Food Science and Technology, Brooks Cole, United States.
  • Hallam, E 2005, Understanding Industrial Practices, Nelson Thornes, United Kingdom.
  • Resurreccion, A 1998, Consumer Sensory Testing for Product Development, Aspen Publishers, United States.
  • Smith, K Cantry, Y and Ward, L 2000, Oxford Food Technology Study Dictionary, Oxford University Press, United Kingdom.
  • Hutton, T 2001, Key Topics in Food Science and Technology No 3, Food Manufacturing: an overview, Campden and Chorleywood Food Research Association Group.
  • Lyon, D Francombe, M Hasdell, T and Lawson, K 1994, Guidelines for Sensory Analysis in Food Product Development and Quality Control, Chapman and Hall, London, United Kingdom.

Teachers may also like to use the Massey University MuFTi Kit material. These kits includes teaching materials and resources that support students to understand processing in a food context.

Assessment for qualifications

The following achievement standard(s) could assess learning outcomes from this learning objective:

  • AS91352 Processing Technologies 2.61: Demonstrate understanding of advanced concepts used in processing

Key messages from the standard

Students will be assessed on their understanding of:

  • processing operations used to process products and their resulting outcomes
  • specific tests used in processing a specific product
  • how processing operations and tests can be combined in a processing sequence to produce a specific product and how this can be explained visually
  • the differences between processing products in a classroom and in industry
  • the differences between health and safety regulations used in the classroom and industry.

Note that the standard requires the explanation around sequencing to be visual. This might include students using a selection of symbols, diagrams, and photographs with annotations. Students who can successfully do this have more than likely analysed existing visual sequences (for example, flow diagrams and their symbols, how they are sequenced, where testing occurs and how results of testing impact on the process) and practiced drawing them.  

Students should also be given the opportunity to compare and contrast appropriate safety procedures when processing in domestic/classroom and industrial situations. This generally requires reference being made to health and safety regulations used in industry (for example, food safety plans, Food Hygiene Regulations 1974, HACCP and OSH regulations).

The following explanatory notes from the standard are essential and must be covered in the teaching process to allow students to access the standard (Explanatory Notes 3–7).

3. Materials may include but are not limited to: food ingredients, plant extracts, micro‑organisms, concrete, fibreglass, woodchips, recycled materials, and resins.

4. Processing refers to the combining and/or manipulating of materials to make a product. Processing operations for this achievement standard include:

  • one or more of – measuring/shaping/forming (such as automated filling, cell counting, aggregating, rotational moulding)
  • one or more of – contamination prevention/disposal (such as chemical cleaning, waste water treatment, solid waste disposal, environmentally sustainable practices, protective clothing and industrial hygiene)
  • one or more of – mixing/extracting/separating/growing (such as emulsifying, enrobing, dehydrating, filtering, crystallising, chemical peeling, centrifuging, adsorption, gravity settling, leaching, solvent extraction, plant tissue culturing)
  • one or more of – heating/cooling/reacting (such as melting, coagulating, gelling, gelatinising, denaturing, evaporating, fermenting, controlling non-enzymatic browning, plate and blast freezing)
  • one or more of – materials transfer ( such as pumping, piping, air conveying)

5. A processing sequence is a combination of processing operations and tests in the correct order to undertake a safe process.

6. Health and safety documentation may include but is not limited to: Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP), Hazardous Substances and New Organisms Act 1996 (HSNO), Physical Containment Level 1 (PC1) for working with micro-organisms.

7. Tests may include but are not limited to testing: viscosity, sensory attributes, brix, moisture content, nutrition content using tables, presence (or absence) of microbial activity, degree of fermentation, and colour stability.

Resources to support student achievement

Last updated June 8, 2018



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