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Curriculum strands

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AOs/LOs by level

Technological practice (TP)

6-1 | 6-2 | 6-3

7-1 | 7-2 | 7-3

8-1 | 8-2 | 8-3

Technological knowledge (TK)

6-1 | 6-2 | 6-3

7-1 | 7-2 | 7-3

8-1 | 8-2 | 8-3

Nature of technology (NT)

6-1 | 6-2

7-1 | 7-2

8-1 | 8-2

Design in technology (DET)

6-1 | 6-2

7-1 | 7-2


Manufacturing (MFG)

6-1 | 6-2

7-1 | 7-2


Technical areas (TCA)


Construction and mechanical technologies (CMT)

6-1 | 6-2 | 6-3 | 6-4

6-5 | 6-6 | 6-7

7-1 |  7-2 |  7-3 |  7-4

7-5 |  7-6 |  7-7

8-1 | 8-2 | 8-3 | 8-4

8-5 | 8-6 | 8-7

Design and visual communication (DVC)

6-1 | 6-2 | 6-3

7-1 | 7-2 | 7-3

8-1 | 8-2 | 8-3

Digital technologies (DTG)

6-1 | 6-2 | 6-3 | 6-4

6-5 | 6-6 | 6-7 | 6-8

6-9 | 6-10 | 6-11 | 6-12

7-1 |  7-2 |  7-3 |  7-4

7-5 |  7-6 |  7-7 |  7-8

7-9 |  7-10 |  7-11 |  7-12

8-1 | 8-2 | 8-3 | 8-4

8-5 |  8-6/7 | 8-8 | 8-9

8-10 |  8-11 | 8-12

Processing technologies (PRT)

6-1 | 6-2 | 6-3

7-1 | 7-2 | 7-3

8-1/2 | 8-3

Implement a process PRT 7-1

Achievement standard 2.60 AS91351

Implement a process focuses on undertaking appropriate procedures to process a specified product. Products may include but are not limited to: fermented or non-fermented foods and beverages, biologically active products, household chemicals, toiletries, cosmetics, paper, resin or fibreglass products.

Learning objective: PRT 7-1

Students will:

  • implement advanced procedures to make a processed product.


Students can:

  • work independently in the execution of advanced procedures
  • undertake advanced testing techniques to determine if a product meets established specifications
  • comply with relevant health and safety documentation.


At level 6, students learn to follow appropriate processing operations and undertake testing to make a product that meets specifications. At level 7, students will progress to implementing advanced processing operations that require the use of advanced testing techniques to ensure the product meets the required specifications.

Teacher guidance

To support students to implement advanced procedures to make a processed product at level 7, teachers could:

  • support students with their undertaking of advanced processing operations 
  • guide students with advanced testing techniques such as viscosity, moisture content, and degree of fermentation.
  • ensure students comply with health and safety documentation such as HACCP and HSNO (see AS/NZ3343.3:200s).

Contexts for teaching and learning

Choosing the context for the learning and assessment

This learning objective is about implementing advanced procedures to process a specified product. However, within a programme of work it is possible to link these skills with knowledge about processing and/or preservation, packaging and storage – refer to learning objective PRT 7-2 (Demonstrate understanding of advanced techniques involved in processing materials respectively) and PRT 7-3 (Demonstrate understanding of advanced concepts and techniques used in the preservation, packaging and storage of products).

While this could be in a context of processing a food product, the following would hold true for other products that may be developed by the students. These include: processing other food products, fermented drinks and foods; processing resin and/or fibreglass in jewellery, surfboard making, and concrete in simple structures.

Give your students practice in processing and testing similar products to the assessment context you will use, such as:

  • Making a similar product.
  • Practicing suitable testing to ensure a successful product. 
  • Showing examples of best practice in existing products so students can discuss why the process/technique worked. 
  • Practicing sequencing of tests and processing and developing a flow diagram to depict this to ensure a successful product. Students should be using established procedures that are controlled (or known) and can be repeated efficiently at any given time to achieve a consistent result. Students should be encouraged to consider ways they can reliably achieve a successful product minimising time and effort. Trialling and testing by students prior to making the final product are an essential part of establishing their sequencing.
  • If feasible, visit industry or invite a practising technologist in to school to discuss their practice with the students.
  • Students should develop a sound understanding of sequencing and scheduling. It is essential they know what happens to products during processing and finishing.
  • Before they begin to make their product, ensure that students know the expectations related to advance procedures.
  • Teachers and students should be familiar with Safety in Technology Education: A Guidance Manual for New Zealand Schools and the implications of the relevant sections when it comes to students implementing their construction processes.

Literacy considerations

Students should develop specific specialist language relevant to their context relating to advanced procedures.

Students will need to develop the skills such as:

  • flow charting and sequencing
  • capturing evidence in appropriate ways to show their processes and testing, and using annotations and refinements to the processing sequences to show responsiveness to testing results.

Resources to support teaching and learning

Case study material


Resin jewellery and products

Concrete ornaments



  • Brown, A. (2007). Understanding Food – Principles and Preparation, 4th Edition. Brooks/Cole.
  • Campbell-Platt, G. (ed). (2009). Food Science and Technology. Wiley Blackwell.
  • Hallam, E. (2005). Understanding Industrial Practices in Food Technology. Nelson Thornes.
  • Hutton, T. (2001). Food Manufacturing: An Overview. (Key topics in Food Science and Technology No 4).    Campden & Chorleywood Food Research Association.
  • Murano, P. (2002). Understanding Food Science and Technology. Brooks/Cole.

Assessment for qualifications

The following achievement standard(s) could assess learning outcomes from this learning objective:

  • AS91351 Processing technologies 2.60: Implement advanced procedures to process a specified product

Key messages from the standard

For this standard students must use flow charting and sequencing as part of their assessment when using advanced procedures, which are those that require the student to perform a self-determined sequence of processing operations and tests to make a successful product. The specifications of the product, the materials to be processed, and the processing operations and tests to be undertaken, will be provided to the student. The sequencing will not be provided.

To achieve this standard, students must also produce an individual flow diagram depicting the sequencing of processing operations and testing. This is to determine that students understand what processes and tests are involved in producing a successful product. To attain the higher grades, students should be encouraged to consider ways they can reliably achieve a successful product while minimising time and effort. Flow diagrams could also be used by both the student and assessor to comment on how problems were resolved, contributing towards evidence for efficiency.

Two approaches are possible when structuring the assessment:

  1. The students are given a particular product to process and test (or products, from which they choose one). The whole class then makes the same product (or one of the alternatives). The teacher may select a product in discussion with the class. They may also allow individual students to negotiate a variation of the selected product.
  2. The students have been engaged in technological practice and are now at the point where they have fully established the specifications for their outcome and are ready to make it.

Before they begin to make their product, the teacher must ensure that:

  • each student has a set of specifications for the product (see the student instructions for an example) – the specifications need to be agreed prior to the product being made; they may be teacher given or developed in negotiation with the student
  • the selected product provides sufficient scope for the student to meet the requirements of the standard
  • the student knows the criteria for a successful product
  • the student is familiar with the methods they will use to process and test the product
  • the student trials, selects and records, as a flow diagram, a processing and testing sequence that will enable them to achieve a successful product
  • the student has access to an appropriate work environment and to the equipment and ingredients they will need to safely make their product
  • the student knows how to process the product following relevant health and safety regulations. 

Refer to assessment resources – student’s resources for some examples of testing that would be suitable to ensure a product is successfully processed. The testing should make sure the students can quantify the quality of a successfully processed product and use this to make decisions to alter their processing to improve the quality.           

Materials may include but are not limited to: food ingredients, plant extracts, micro‑organisms, concrete, fibreglass, wood chips, recycled materials, and resins. Products may include but are not limited to: fermented or non-fermented foods and beverages, biologically active products, household chemicals, toiletries, cosmetics, paper, and resin or fibreglass products.

To process refers to the combining and/or manipulating of materials to make a product.

Specified product refers to a product and its relevant specifications, including material specifications. The specifications must be of sufficient rigour to allow the student to meet the standard. The specifications need to be agreed prior to the product being made. They may be teacher-given or developed in negotiation with the student.

Health and safety documentation may include but is not limited to: Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP), Hazardous Substances and New Organisms Act 1996 (HSNO), Physical Containment Level 1 (PC1) for working with micro-organisms.

Processing operations for this achievement standard include but are not limited to:

  • one or more of – mixing/extracting/separating/growing, for example, emulsifying, enrobing, dehydrating, filtering, crystallising, chemical peeling, centrifuging, gravity settling, solvent extraction, plant tissue culturing
  • one or more of – heating/cooling/reacting, for example, melting, coagulating, gelling, gelatinising, denaturing, evaporating, fermenting, controlling non-enzymatic browning

Tests may include but are not limited to testing for: viscosity, sensory attributes, brix, moisture content, nutritional content using tables, presence (or absence) of microbial activity, degree of fermentation, and colour stability.


Students will be required to keep some evidence for assessment that should include but not limited to the following:                                                                                                                                            

  • the finished product (photographic and annotated)
  • annotated flow diagram, photographs of the finished product, any written comments or explanations, and any other evidence of the techniques and the testing procedures used (for example, checklists and annotated photographs).

This standard requires the teacher to make judgments about the ways in which techniques are implemented, as well as about the quality of the finished product. For example, the teacher is required to determine (for merit) whether the student has shown “independence and accuracy in the execution of the techniques and tests” and (for excellence) whether the student has worked “in a manner that economises time, effort, and materials”. Therefore, you must be able to justify your judgments by providing evidence derived from student or teacher recording, classroom observation, and/or discussion with students. Teacher checklists can also be used to qualify the teacher judgments of the students’ implementation processes.


  • Accuracy can be seen in the finished product, and in how the student has used information from testing.
    It can also be seen in the accuracy with which they follow their established flow diagram (for example, the student follows their established processing sequence to beat egg whites for 3 minutes on high and sets a timer to ensure this. The student can identify that the egg whites are not beaten to the correct point for this stage of processing, as they had not sat at room temperature long enough. The student then beats the egg whites for a further minute and is able to recognise that they are now ready for the next stage of the processing sequence).
  • Independence can be gauged from level of teacher input required, and from classroom observation of student interactions.
  • Economy of time is gauged by observation and relates to how effectively students organise themselves in the food preparation area, and minimise downtime. It may also be seen in planning and carrying out processes in parallel, for example, blind baking the base at the same time as making the lemon filling.
  • Economy of effort is a measure of the extent to which a student knows what to do and gets on and does it rather than relying on trial and error. It can be gauged from the student’s flow diagram for processing and testing and from classroom observation of adherence to this. The student will minimise effort also by not carrying out excessive testing (for example, by not checking the colour of the pie in the oven excessively but doing the one or two checks as planned in their flow diagram).
  • Economy of resources is gauged by the extent to which a student minimises the use of ingredients and equipment.

Economy of time, effort, and resources may also all be demonstrated in one action by students. For example, students could choose the correct tool for the task that saves time and effort and minimises wastage as the tool chosen allows for the task to be completed accurately the first time.

Economy of time and effort will be commonly linked.

Some students may be able to intuitively produce a lemon meringue pie to meet the specifications, however, all students must develop a flow diagram depicting the sequencing of processing operations and testing.

The final product is useful in how it exhibits accuracy, however, the control the student shows in implementing the processing and testing sequence is equally important for judgment.

Resources to support student achievement

Last updated June 8, 2018