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AO/LOs

Curriculum strands

Specialist strands

AOs/LOs by level

Technological practice (TP)

6-1 | 6-2 | 6-3

7-1 | 7-2 | 7-3

8-1 | 8-2 | 8-3

Technological knowledge (TK)

6-1 | 6-2 | 6-3

7-1 | 7-2 | 7-3

8-1 | 8-2 | 8-3

Nature of technology (NT)

6-1 | 6-2

7-1 | 7-2

8-1 | 8-2

Design in technology (DET)

6-1 | 6-2

7-1 | 7-2

8-1/2

Manufacturing (MFG)

6-1 | 6-2

7-1 | 7-2

8-1/2

Technical areas (TCA)

8-1 

Construction and mechanical technologies (CMT)

6-1 | 6-2 | 6-3 | 6-4

6-5 | 6-6 | 6-7

7-1 |  7-2 |  7-3 |  7-4

7-5 |  7-6 |  7-7

8-1 | 8-2 | 8-3 | 8-4

8-5 | 8-6 | 8-7

Design and visual communication (DVC)

6-1 | 6-2 | 6-3

7-1 | 7-2 | 7-3

8-1 | 8-2 | 8-3

Digital technologies (DTG)

6-1 | 6-2 | 6-3 | 6-4

6-5 | 6-6 | 6-7 | 6-8

6-9 | 6-10 | 6-11 | 6-12

7-1 |  7-2 |  7-3 |  7-4

7-5 |  7-6 |  7-7 |  7-8

7-9 |  7-10 |  7-11 |  7-12

8-1 | 8-2 | 8-3 | 8-4

8-5 |  8-6/7 | 8-8 | 8-9

8-10 |  8-11 | 8-12

Processing technologies (PRT)

6-1 | 6-2 | 6-3

7-1 | 7-2 | 7-3

8-1/2 | 8-3


Graphics practice DVC 8-2

Graphics practice refers to the creative application of drawing and design knowledge and techniques to develop conceptual outcomes that address a brief, or a technological outcome of a graphical nature.

The brief used may be provided to the students or developed by the students as part of their practice. Quality outcomes resulting from graphics practice rely on the selection of appropriate and well-executed drawing techniques, and presentation methods that allow conceptual designs to be communicated effectively.

Learning objective: DVC 8-2

Students will:

  • demonstrate ability to integrate design knowledge and drawing techniques to develop and communicate a conceptual design to address a brief through graphics practice.

Indicators

  • Explore diverse contexts beyond and within design situations to identify opportunities for potential design solutions.
  • Use modeling and graphic techniques to explore and refine design ideas as potential solutions for situations.
  • Communicate a variety of design ideas as potential solutions for the situation.
  • Explore the possibilities of a range of potential design solutions within a design situation and the interrelationships that exist between them.
  • Produce visual presentations that skilfully use compositional principles, modes, media, and presentation techniques to communicate a design outcome to the viewer.
  • Explore design contexts to identify opportunities and constraints for refining a product and/or spatial design.
  • Clarify design ideas through an iterative refinement process that draws on specialist product and/or spatial design knowledge.
  • Communicate product and/or spatial designs that are justified against identified opportunities and constraints.

Progression

Initially students learn to apply drawing and design knowledge and techniques to visually communicate design ideas when developing conceptual outcomes to address a brief, through generating, testing, and evaluating design ideas. This should progress to students learning to undertaking critical analysis of a conceptual outcome against the brief to justify its potential fitness for purpose.

At level 8:Students apply visual communication and design knowledge and techniques to visually communicate design ideas when developing conceptual ideas in spatial and product design contexts.

Teacher guidance

To support students to explore, develop, and extend design ideas by integrating specialist visual communication and design knowledge and techniques in response to a brief, at level 8, teachers could:

  • provide opportunity for students to experiment and explore ideas through providing abstract or esoteric starting points and on-going contexts
  • provide opportunity for students to generate, develop, and communicate design ideas informed by research beyond the design situation (for example, not obviously connected to the design situation) and using relevant testing including modeling (2D and 3D physical and virtual mock-ups and models, animations, prototypes) and graphic techniques 
  • provide opportunity for students to use presentation techniques that draw on compositional principles (or example, proximity, alignment, hierarchy, use of positive and negative space), graphic modes (for example, digital, photography, animation, conventional sketching and drawing methods) and media (for example, pastels, collage, card and digital media, marker pens) to present design ideas and conceptual outcomes
  • provide opportunity for students to review and refine the aesthetic and functional qualities of a spatial design that incorporates specialist spatial design knowledge and tools (for example ergonomes, mock-ups, market research, virtual modelling) and graphic techniques for inside and outside spaces, in response to a brief
  • provide opportunity for students to review and refine the aesthetic and functional qualities of a product design, incorporating specialist product design knowledge, and tools (for example ergonomes, mock-ups, market research, virtual modeling) and graphic techniques, in response to a brief
  • guide students to respond and reflect upon design judgments in the development and on-going critiquing of design ideas into a conceptual outcome
  • provide opportunity for students to match presentation format and construction procedures through consideration and selection of presentation techniques, viewer needs and the nature of the design outcomes being presented, and communicate design outcomes to an audience in response to the design brief
  • provide opportunity for students to evaluate conceptual outcomes against the brief, informed by wider conditions and factors related to the context, and justify how the outcome addresses identified opportunities and constraints.

Contexts for teaching and learning

Students use graphics practice to develop and refine ideas in an iterative, logical and organised way when evolving design ideas.

Techniques and design knowledge may include:

  • use of design tools such as market research, mock-ups
  • anthropometric data and ergonomics
  • technical knowledge: 
    • materials, joining, fitting, assembly, finish, fasteners, sustainability  
    • knowledge of the environment  
    • visual communication techniques such as modelling, drawing, animations and rendering.

Students will require:

  • access to product design books and access to appropriate websites.
  • access to computer with CAD and design software (SolidWorks, ArchiCAD, Vectorworks, Adobe Photoshop and so on) animations can be used as supporting evidence.

Support students to:

  • apply graphics practice to produce a portfolio of design work that shows the exploration, refinement, and communication of design ideas in a spatial design solution
  • explore the opportunities and constraints. Explore the context fully: such as the light, sun paths, topography, position to north, wind patterns, urban factors, access, how people will interact with the building inside and outdoors, investigate existing features (trees, proximity of neighbours, stylistic features, and so on) views, shadows from trees, neighbours property, and so on. Consider the wider context – legal, ethical, cultural, historical, economic, sustainability, technological factors)
  • use photographs, notes, sketches, brainstorming or any other technique to demonstrate their design thinking concerning the context
  • refine ideas: thumbnails, explorative sketches, thinking sketches, technical details, that all work towards to developing a design outcome. (These are clearly evidenced in their portfolios in either 2D or 3D and are informed by research.)
  • relate their designs to human dimensions/factors
  • use visual communication techniques to explore and present their design ideas such as freehand sketches, sketch models, drawings, models, photographs, digital media, display boards and installations, refined rendering techniques. (Bubble spatial diagrams, floor plans, elevations (measured), perspective views, proportion of spaces, position of doors, windows, flow of areas, orientation of layout)
  • add annotations to their visuals to explain design thinking, crucial decision-making throughout their design development, considering both aesthetic and functional considerations, opportunities and constraints. Think about how they can improve ideas, how they can integrate knowledge they have gained from research, showing they have consider the wider environment, how people will interact with the space
  • use spatial design knowledge, (researched throughout), to develop and refine design ideas in an iterative, logical and organised way. This knowledge could come from research throughout the design process on others practice, the users needs, possible construction methods and the materials available. Use knowledge to inform design thinking and will be visually communicated/annotated throughout
  • use product design knowledge, to develop and refine design ideas in an iterative, logical and organised way. This knowledge could come from research throughout the design process on others practice, the users needs, possible construction methods and the materials available. Use knowledge to inform design thinking and will be visually communicated/annotated throughout
  • show through visuals how they have integrated, the exterior form, style, inside mechanisms, jointing, fastenings, materials and its intended use
  • show how their designs have evolved into an effective resolved design solution justifying them against the identified opportunities and constraints. 

To support students to develop the skills and knowledge at level 8, teachers could:

  • consider and discuss with students how they will show evidence/document their exploration/ divergent thinking and refinement process (convergent thinking)
  • teach and allow students the time to develop visual communication techniques for example, Freehand sketching techniques, exploded views, sequential/cutaway views, detail drawings, model making, taking photographs, using digital media, use of display boards and installations to develop students ability and confidence in using them in their own work
  • teach students how to justify their design thinking, especially the crucial decision-making, through visual communication techniques and annotating. Provide students with sentence starters/appropriate vocabulary to do this
  • work with students individually to discuss how they are going to refine their design ideas
  • allow opportunities for students to critique their own and each other’s work by developing a culture of trust in seeking and listening to advice from others. 

For spatial design:

  • provide a student brief with a design context that will engage students’ interests. Design context can be personal to the student, an aspect of family life, a communal space like a school library or sailing club, retail spaces that relate to student hobbies/interests, gardens, urban spaces, buildings for a specific purpose – interior and/or exterior and so on. The context refers to the environment in which the spatial design is going to be situated 
  • provide exemplars of existing spatial designs, discuss the visual communication techniques, the materials used and so on. Collect examples of display – promotional materials.

For product design:

  • provide a student brief with a design context that will engage students’ interests. The design context can be personal to the student, a need of a family member or friend in the context of: furniture, hand held devices, kitchen product, user-friendly products and so on 
  • provide exemplars of existing products designs, discuss the visual communication techniques, the materials used, new materials, the ergonomic considerations, sustainable issues, aesthetics, manufacture and so on 
  • allow students to disassemble a product to investigate the exterior form and workings, (black box). Get students to investigate joints, fastenings in other products to develop their product knowledge.

Literacy considerations

Graphics practice for product design is about expressing visual literacy. It is about the design of objects and artefacts and may include: fashion, packaging, media products, consumer products and engineered products.

  • Design context refers to the environment in which the product design is to be situated. An exploration of the design context includes consideration of the milieu and the environment’s link to various factors, including but not limited to legal, ethical, cultural, historical, economic, and technological factors.
  • The refinement process is the process by which we evolve design ideas to improve the aesthetic and/or functional qualities of the product design. This is informed by such things as research, analysis, making design judgments, reflection, and critique.
  • Product design knowledge includes elements of design ideas approaches, technical knowledge, and visual communication techniques relevant to the specific product design context. These may include but are not limited to:
    • Design tools used for the development of product design ideas (such as market research, anthropometrics, ergonomics, mock-ups and models).
    • Technical knowledge of materials, joining, fitting, assembly, finish, fasteners, sustainability, and environmental considerations.
    • Product design visual communication techniques and approaches (such as drawing and rendering, and the use of prototypes, models and animation).

Resources to support student achievement

Assessment for qualifications

  • AS91627 Design and visual communication 3.30: Initiate design ideas through exploration
  • AS91628 Design and visual communication 3.31: Develop a visual presentation that exhibits a design outcome to an audience
  • AS91629 Design and visual communication 3.32: Resolve a spatial design through graphics practice
  • AS91630 Design and visual communication 3.33: Resolve a product design through graphics practice.

Key messages for DVC standards

Last updated June 8, 2018



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