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6-1 | 6-2 | 6-3

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8-1 | 8-2 | 8-3

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6-1 | 6-2 | 6-3

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8-1 | 8-2

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6-1 | 6-2

7-1 | 7-2

8-1/2

Manufacturing (MFG)

6-1 | 6-2

7-1 | 7-2

8-1/2

Technical areas (TCA)

8-1 

Construction and mechanical technologies (CMT)

6-1 | 6-2 | 6-3 | 6-4

6-5 | 6-6 | 6-7

7-1 |  7-2 |  7-3 |  7-4

7-5 |  7-6 |  7-7

8-1 | 8-2 | 8-3 | 8-4

8-5 | 8-6 | 8-7

Design and visual communication (DVC)

6-1 | 6-2 | 6-3

7-1 | 7-2 | 7-3

8-1 | 8-2 | 8-3

Digital technologies (DTG)

6-1 | 6-2 | 6-3 | 6-4

6-5 | 6-6 | 6-7 | 6-8

6-9 | 6-10 | 6-11 | 6-12

7-1 |  7-2 |  7-3 |  7-4

7-5 |  7-6 |  7-7 |  7-8

7-9 |  7-10 |  7-11 |  7-12

8-1 | 8-2 | 8-3 | 8-4

8-5 |  8-6/7 | 8-8 | 8-9

8-10 |  8-11 | 8-12

Processing technologies (PRT)

6-1 | 6-2 | 6-3

7-1 | 7-2 | 7-3

8-1/2 | 8-3


Knowledge of textiles construction CMT 6-4

Achievement Standard 1.23, AS 91060

Textile Materials refer to a group of materials that are grouped together because they show certain common characteristics. These materials include but are not limited to: natural and synthetic fibres, yarns, knits and woven fabrics. Textile materials require particular techniques to be used to enable these materials to be measured, cut, shaped, joined and finished when making products. Advanced techniques are required to craft special features of a high standard in a product and rely on the consistent application of accepted conventions to achieve a desired effect. Special features can be structural and/or aesthetic, and include: style features such as set in sleeves, fly front, tailored collars and cuffs, welt pockets; decorative features such as pin tucks, embroidery, shirring; and structural features such as 3D felting, combining different fibres in felting and different materials.

Learning objective: CMT 6-4

Students will:

  • demonstrate understanding of basic techniques used to make textile materials products.

Indicators

Students can:

  • explain how the characteristics of textile materials influence the 
selection of safe techniques 

  • discuss why textile materials require particular techniques for their safe 
handling and use 

  • discuss why techniques and textile materials are combined in different ways across two or more situations. 


Progression

 Prior to level 6 students should be developing an understanding of range of skills and techniques used when working with textile materials to support their knowledge and skill development when constructing textile materials outcomes. Relevant health and safety and codes of practice should also be a focus of the teaching and learning programme.

At Level 6 students learn about textile materials, the basic techniques commonly used to work them, and the relationship between these.

The Teacher Guidance section provides information that supports teachers scaffolding of learning from levels 1-8 of the curriculum. This allows for differentiation of a programme of learning.

The deliberate use of provide, guide, and support in this section signals that as students' capacity for self-management increases, teachers progressively reduce the level of scaffolding provided.

  • Provide – the teacher should take full responsibility for introducing and explicitly teaching new knowledge, skills or practices.
  • Guide – the students have a level of understanding and competency on which they can draw but the teacher remains primarily responsible for continuing to develop these.
  • Support – the students take primary responsibility for their own learning, drawing on all their previous experiences to consolidate and extend their understanding. The teacher is supportive rather than directive.
  • The Teacher Guidance also uses the term ensure to indicate when the teacher plays a monitoring role to check that conditions critical for learning are present. 

Teacher guidance

To support students to develop understandings about the basic techniques used to make textile material products at level 6, teachers could:

  • Provide opportunity for students to categorise a range of materials and 
identify those that display characteristics associated with the broad categories: resistant materials and textiles. Include materials that exist at the boundaries of the category, such as vinyl and leather. 

  • Provide opportunity for students to explore a range of products made from textile materials in order to discuss the materials used, their characteristics (eg, Strength, thickness, stretch, drape) and the techniques that would be appropriate to work them safely. 

  • Guide students to explore how and why textile materials and techniques are combined differently for particular situations. 

  • Provide students with the opportunity to understand how basic techniques are undertaken in safe and effective manner, and the impact of these techniques on different materials. Examples of basic techniques include: measuring and marking out; sizing, shaping and forming; joining and assembling; finishing and detailing. 


Contexts for teaching and learning

Learning about basic techniques used to make textile materials products can be incorporated into a teaching and learning programme where students make a specified textile product to meet a brief (refer to CMT 6-2). This objective and subsequent assessment is about demonstrating understanding and knowledge of textile construction while not necessarily making a specified product.

This could also be linked in a learning programme to CMT 6-1 where students are implementing basic procedures to construct a textiles product in the context of their technological practice TP 6-3

When students developing understanding of the accepted conventions that are used when making products, they should be exposed to accepted standards and methods. This can be done through demonstration, interviews or videos of practicing technologists or industry visits

When explaining safe practices, students should explain:

  • strategies to manage the safety of those in the work space
  • the responsibilities (both legal and ethical) of students/employees
  • the teachers/employers, reporting systems and liability.

It may be easier for some students to show their understanding after they have made a product. These final understandings might be informed by some initial investigations before the product is made. Not having made a product does not exclude a student from achieving this objective, but it is expected that students will require access to materials to demonstrate how accepted conventions are achieved. This might include, for example, materials used to make a product, to reinforce it and to achieve particular finishes. Students will more than likely also need to explore a range of existing products, in order to discuss the materials and techniques used, to achieve particular quality features.

Prior learning should cover the range of concepts students will need to explore as part of the assessment process, this could be in the context of their technological practice or developing and constructing an item to develop both skills and knowledge that cover the following:

  • Characteristics of textile materials include variables that require managing in different ways during construction. These variable characteristics include:
    • strength (for example, canvas is a much stronger fabric than cotton print)
    • thickness (for example, denim, canvas, duck, and polar fleece are comparatively thick fabrics while georgette, organza, and t-shirting are comparatively thin fabrics)
    • stretch (for example, considerable stretch is found in stretch knits and in fabrics cut on the bias while other fabrics, such as linens, have relatively little stretch)
    • drape (for example, more drape is found in georgette and wool crepe than in denim and organza).
    • Other variable characteristics of textile materials include their nap or pile, their stability (in terms of tendency to fray), their shine (satin is very shiny), and their stickiness (PVC materials can be quite sticky).

Techniques used to make products from textile materials include:

  • techniques for measuring (for example, adjusting for body size, positioning grainline, measuring hems) or for marking out (for example, transfer of pattern markings, marking hemlines)
  • techniques for sizing (for example, working out pattern size, proportions), shaping (for example, using darts, gathers, princess seams), or forming (for example, fitting)
  • techniques for joining or assembling (for example, creating seams, adding zips)
  • techniques for finishing or detailing (for example, pressing, top stitching, applying designs).

Managing textile materials by using and understanding:

  • techniques that accommodate the characteristics of textile materials (for example, using a walking foot when seaming fabrics that are shiny and slippery)
  • techniques that make the most of or take advantage of the characteristics of textile materials (for example, taking advantage of a fabric’s stretch when fitting a sleeve).

To support students developing their understanding, the teaching and learning programme could incorporate a variety of activities such as:

  • Manufacturing or industry visits
  • Futureintech ambassadors or other specialists and guest speakers
  • Case studies, textile guide books relating to fashion and sewing techniques
  • Deconstructing and experimenting with textile products and garments. Some students have deconstructed an outfit to assist them in demonstrating the required understandings. This would need to be accompanied by a discussion of the construction techniques used and how they make the most of or manage the different types of textile materials
  • Teacher demonstrations
  • Group activities in testing and trialling of variety of basic techniques and processes in a range of materials and methods
  • Students are required to show understanding of how techniques are used in the construction of textile products..
  • Students should have a range of techniques and processes to explore in their learning experiences; they may investigate what these techniques look like in different existing products or in patterns; how they were made; and what determined that they had a quality finish.
  • Materials could be considered on the basis of thickness, drape, nap or pile, stretch, fray, shine, pattern to be matched, beading or sequins, crush, stickiness, tendency to change structurally ( for example pilling, stretch)  or a combination of these.

Other contexts for learning that could support students to demonstrate their understanding of basic concepts in textiles include such things as: shoemaking, hat making, clothing design/making and upholstery

Literacy considerations

Students will need to be supported in their understanding of the assessment language of describe, explain and discussNote the following definitions:

  • to identify is to state an idea
  • to describe is a statement that gives details about the outcome or idea
  • to explain is to describe in detail with reasons – often including the how and why
  • to discuss requires an explanation that is comprehensive, detailed, broad and show evidence of some complexity in thinking. It may be a reasoned argument presenting a particular point of view, a comparison and contrast between two ideas or concepts or it may be  a detailed reasoning and relationship between several complex ideas

Students will need to be supported in their understanding of how describe, explain and discuss look when collecting their evidence for assessment and writing frames and structures or template can be used judiciously to support this. Care must be taken not to over template writing forms, which may not allow students to achieve against the criteria.

Students must be supported to develop systems to capture specific evidence of their development for assessment and moderation purposes, which may form a part of a larger portfolio of evidence.

Students will need to understand how to explain and discuss the concepts related to the objective:

  • describes characteristics of textile materials
  • explains techniques selected and discusses why they would be used with specific textile materials
  • describes combinations of techniques and textile materials that would be suitable in a specific situation and explains why a particular combination would be suitable for that situation
  • compares two products intended for use in different situations (for example, a drama costume and a street wear garment) and discusses which techniques and textile materials have been used to make each garment and why they have been used. 
  • For the techniques, concepts, conventions and attributes students may need to learn particular pieces of vocabulary to explain and discuss the product, the types of techniques used and the specialist equipment. For example they may need to use particular terms and expressions:, basting stitch length, clip through the seams, regular stitch length, , trimming,  and finishing techniques

Resources to support teaching and learning

Case study material

General resources:

Internet sites

Books

Ahles, C. L., 2004, Fine Machine Sewing: Easy ways to get the look of hand finishing and embellishing, The Taunton Press, USA.

Betzina, S., 2004, More Fabric Savvy, The Taunton Press, USA.

Betzina, S., 2010, Power Sewing Toolbox 1 & 2, The Taunton Press, USA.

Baugh, G. 2011, The Fashion Designer’s Textile Directory: A Guide to Fabrics’ Properties, Characteristics and Garment-Design Potential.

DVDs

  • 2010 Threads Archive DVD-ROM, available from  Taunton Store
  • Threads Industry Insider Techniques DVD, Vol.1 and Vol. 2, available from  Taunton Store 

Assessment for qualifications

The following achievement standard(s) could assess learning outcomes from this learning objective:

  • AS 91060 construction and Mechanical technologies 1.23: Demonstrate understanding of basic concepts used to make products from textile materials

Key messages from the standard

The standard requires students to develop and demonstrate understanding of basic concepts used to make textile products and the techniques used to create them.

Students will also require knowledge of textile equipment used to make/construct the products including marking tools, cutting-out tools (for example rotary cutters, specialist scissors), machine attachments, and needles.

Evidence of understanding will typically come from a variety of sources and activities. It may come from part of targeted teaching and learning or collected throughout the year as part of a whole programme.

Techniques used to make products from textile materials include:

  • techniques for measuring (for example, adjusting for body size, positioning grainline, measuring hems) or for marking out (for example, transfer of pattern markings, marking hemlines)
  • techniques for sizing (for example, working out pattern size, proportions), shaping (for example, using darts, gathers, princess seams), or forming (for example, fitting)
  • techniques for joining or assembling (for example, creating seams, adding zips)
  • techniques for finishing or detailing (for example, pressing, top stitching, applying designs

Textile materials in this achievement standard may include but are not limited to – natural and synthetic fibres, yarns and fabrics.

Characteristics of textile materials may include but are not limited to – strength, thickness, stretch, drape.

Characteristics of textile materials include variables that require managing in different ways during construction. These variable characteristics include:

  • strength (for example, canvas is a much stronger fabric than cotton print)
  • thickness (for example, denim, canvas, duck, and polar fleece are comparatively thick fabrics while georgette, organza, and t-shirting are comparatively thin fabrics)
  • stretch (for example, considerable stretch is found in stretch knits and in fabrics cut on the bias while other fabrics, such as linens, have relatively little stretch)
  • drape (for example, more drape is found in georgette and wool crepe than in denim and organza).

Other variable characteristics of textile materials include their nap or pile, their stability (in terms of tendency to fray), their shine (satin is very shiny), and their stickiness (PVC materials can be quite sticky).

Managing textile materials includes:

  • using techniques that accommodate the characteristics of textile materials (for example, using a walking foot when seaming fabrics that are shiny and slippery)
  • using techniques that make the most of or take advantage of the characteristics of textile materials (for example, taking advantage of a fabric’s stretch when fitting a sleeve).

Students will need to explore the construction techniques used and how they make the most of or manage the different types of textile materials. For example, to achieve, the student could explain the attributes of a particular features, for example a patch pocket, the reasons they are constructed in a particular way, and the requirements for a quality finish. For merit, they would also be expected to explain how the different types of materials used influence the construction and for excellence, the student would then need to discuss why particular materials and construction techniques are used to create high-quality outcomes in textile products, that is discussing why techniques and textile materials are combined in different ways across two or more situations. Note for achieved and merit students need only exlpore wthin the context of one situation, that is one garment of product but for excellence two situations /contexts/garments must be addressed.

Evidence should demonstrate student understanding of the following

  • key characteristics of textile materials comparing ways in which the degree of strength, thickness, stretch, and drape (other variable characteristics) vary from one material to another
  • describe techniques from each of the four categories of techniques mentioned in the standard
  • explain why these techniques (at least one from each of the four categories of techniques) are used
  • explain how specific techniques are selected to manage the characteristics of specific textile materials and discuss why different textile materials require or benefit from different techniques
  • compare the materials and techniques used for two different situations
  • discuss the suitability of the materials and techniques used in two or more situations

It may be easier for some students to show their understanding after they have made a product. These final understandings might be informed by some initial investigations before the product is made. Not having made a product does not exclude a student from achieving this standard, but it is expected that students will require access to materials to demonstrate how special features are achieved. This might include, for example, materials used to make a product, to shape it and to achieve particular finishes. Other materials may be required to demonstrate different techniques applied in similar and diverse textiles. Students will more than likely also need to explore a range of existing products, in order to discuss the materials and techniques used, to achieve particular quality features. 

Evidence for assessment may come from a variety of sources and activities. Students will need guidance on what constitutes evidence, how they are to organise and annotate the evidence they gather, and present it (for example as a hard copy in a portfolio, digitally, or as a combination of the two). Teachers will need to ensure that the range and depth of evidence the students provide covers the requirements of the standard.

This evidence can be drawn from a range of sources

  • photographs and/or drawings including annotations describing the accepted conventions followed when constructing the product
  • photographs or photocopies of safe practices followed during  construction with annotations stating how this practice exemplifies common approaches to managing safety in school workshops
  • an analysis of the connections between the conventions used and the tools and techniques used to follow the conventions in similar contexts (for example other pieces of constructed textiles product)
  • an  explanation of the safety practices in school environment.

Creating the report is an individual activity, but students may carry out the investigation either independently or with a partner or group.

For the most up to date information, teachers should be referring to the latest version of the standards, conditions of assessment and assessment resources on TKI and the moderators reports, clarifications documents and student exemplars on the NZQA website. See links below. 

Resources to support student achievement

Assessment resource:

Level 1 Technology assessment resources

Construction and Mechanical Technologies level 1 internal assessment resource: Knowing Sewing

Vocational Pathway assessment resource: AS 91060, Getting to Know Protective Clothing

Vocational Pathway assessment resource: AS 91060, Understanding Aerodynamic Sails

Annotated Exemplars

Last updated May 30, 2018



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