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AOs/LOs by level

Technological practice (TP)

6-1 | 6-2 | 6-3

7-1 | 7-2 | 7-3

8-1 | 8-2 | 8-3

Technological knowledge (TK)

6-1 | 6-2 | 6-3

7-1 | 7-2 | 7-3

8-1 | 8-2 | 8-3

Nature of technology (NT)

6-1 | 6-2

7-1 | 7-2

8-1 | 8-2

Design in technology (DET)

6-1 | 6-2

7-1 | 7-2


Manufacturing (MFG)

6-1 | 6-2

7-1 | 7-2


Technical areas (TCA)


Construction and mechanical technologies (CMT)

6-1 | 6-2 | 6-3 | 6-4

6-5 | 6-6 | 6-7

7-1 |  7-2 |  7-3 |  7-4

7-5 |  7-6 |  7-7

8-1 | 8-2 | 8-3 | 8-4

8-5 | 8-6 | 8-7

Design and visual communication (DVC)

6-1 | 6-2 | 6-3

7-1 | 7-2 | 7-3

8-1 | 8-2 | 8-3

Digital technologies (DTG)

6-1 | 6-2 | 6-3 | 6-4

6-5 | 6-6 | 6-7 | 6-8

6-9 | 6-10 | 6-11 | 6-12

7-1 |  7-2 |  7-3 |  7-4

7-5 |  7-6 |  7-7 |  7-8

7-9 |  7-10 |  7-11 |  7-12

8-1 | 8-2 | 8-3 | 8-4

8-5 |  8-6/7 | 8-8 | 8-9

8-10 |  8-11 | 8-12

Processing technologies (PRT)

6-1 | 6-2 | 6-3

7-1 | 7-2 | 7-3

8-1/2 | 8-3

Create a digital media outcome DTG 6-4

Achievement Standard 1.43, AS91073

Create a digital media outcome requires students to construct a digital media outcome that integrates media types and incorporates original content. The specifications for the digital media outcome, software and techniques to be used need to be determined prior to the outcome being made.

Learning objective: DTG 6-4

Students will:

  • implement basic procedures to create a digital media outcome.


Students can:

  • use appropriate features of digital media software to edit and integrate digital media types to create a digital media outcome
  • apply formatting techniques, design elements, and data integrity and testing procedures, to ensure the outcome meets the specifications
  • follow legal, ethical, and moral responsibilities as appropriate to the outcome
  • show accuracy and independence in the application of techniques and testing procedures
  • undertake techniques and testing procedures in a manner that economises the use of resources in a digital media outcome’s production and use.


As part of a junior technology programme students should be creating simple digital media outcomes.  The programme should include activities that:

  • demonstrate how the various tools available within the software application can improve the accuracy of the outcome or the efficiency in its production (eg use of layers, alignment tools, grids or guides). 
  • teach students how to analyse outcomes to spot accuracy errors and discuss how improved accuracy would make the outcome more effective.
  • set guidelines for the ethical use of digital information and encourage creation of their own media through for example vector or raster image programs rather than copying and pasting media from the internet.
  • teach basic document design principles and analyse outcomes (such as websites or posters) for their application of design principles.
  • set guidelines or have checklists for testing procedures and encourage peer review and testing of outcomes.

At level 6 students learn to perform a set of basic techniques, as instructed, to produce a digital media outcome.

The Teacher Guidance section provides information that supports teachers scaffolding of learning from levels 1-8 of the curriculum. This allows for differentiation of a programme of learning.

The deliberate use of provide, guide, and support in this section signals that as students' capacity for self-management increases, teachers progressively reduce the level of scaffolding provided.

  • Provide – the teacher should take full responsibility for introducing and explicitly teaching new knowledge, skills or practices.
  • Guide – the students have a level of understanding and competency on which they can draw but the teacher remains primarily responsible for continuing to develop these.
  • Support – the students take primary responsibility for their own learning, drawing on all their previous experiences to consolidate and extend their understanding. The teacher is supportive rather than directive.
  • The Teacher Guidance also uses the term ensure to indicate when the teacher plays a monitoring role to check that conditions critical for learning are present.

Teacher guidance

To support students to implement basic procedures to create a digital media outcome, at level 6, teachers could:

  • Provide opportunity for students to explore and develop technical expertise with digital media tools.
  • Provide opportunity for students to apply an understanding of digital media to design and create a number of different digital media outcomes using a variety of digital media technologies.
  • Provide opportunity for students to develop an understanding about the legal, ethical and moral responsibilities as appropriate to a digital media outcome.
  • Provide opportunity for students to develop an understanding about, and apply data integrity and testing procedures that ensure a digital media outcome meets brief specifications
  • Provide opportunity for students to interpret the needs of a situation to publish a successful and appropriate digital media outcome.

Contexts for teaching and learning

This learning objective is about creating digital media outcomes. However within a programme of work it is possible to link these skills with knowledge about digital media – refer to learning objective DTG 6-3 "Demonstrate understanding of basic concepts in digital media".

The type of digital media outcome is not specified so students could be working in the context of such things as web design, image manipulation, vector graphics, motion graphics, animation, print media, digital video or audio, game design, designing the user interface for an application, 3D modeling, or augmented reality.

Teachers need to ensure that the digital media skills they teach and the outcomes that students create are suitably for students working at curriculum level 6. At level 6 the term used is "basic" procedures compared to "advanced" at level 7 and "complex" at level 8. The standards at NCEA level 2 (and 3) contain examples of what "advanced" and "complex" tools and techniques are. There is no equivalent list for the standard at this level but teachers can look at the list in the level 2 standard (AS91370) and backwards map to what might be appropriate at curriculum level 6. However the standards at NCEA level 2 and 3 do not contain exhaustive list of tools and techniques so teachers need to use their own professional judgement. In particular if students are creating a different type of digital media outcome to the examples given such as digital audio or 3D modelling the teacher will need to determine the range of suitable techniques.

Websites can be coded using web authoring WYSIWYG software at level 6.

Within digital media there are a wide range of outcomes that the students can produce.  There are also a wide variety of on-line tutorials and videos and teaching and learning resources in this area (see below for some high quality examples).  The key is that students have learning activities that allow them to practice the tools and techniques before they are applied in an assessment situation.  

Another important aspect to the practice tasks is to integrate on-going testing procedures, so that students understand the importance of on-going testing and not just one-off testing at the end of an outcome’s development.  Incorporating testing tasks within the practice lessons, will help guide students as to the various types of testing they could utilise when being formally assessed on their digital media outcome.

Whether formally assessed or not, teaching the knowledge of digital media alongside the practical skills will help to provide the foundation for students to produce high quality outcomes. Refer to DTG 6-3 "Knowledge of digital media".

A strategy that can be useful is for the teacher is to create screen casts, using freely available software, which allow the students to work through the tools and techniques at their own pace and review the concepts as needed. 

Literacy considerations

Teachers need to ensure students understand the specialist language related to creating digital media outcomes such as "data integrity" or "integrate media types". Students also need to understand the specialist language of the software applications they are using, the file extensions pertaining to the software, and the specialist language associated with the digital media context. In addition students must understand words such as accuracy, independence, and efficiency, which are important in terms of the way they go about creating the digital media outcome.

Resources to support teaching and learning

Other resources for teaching and learning:

Assessment for qualifications

The following achievement standard(s) could assess learning outcomes from this learning objective:

  • AS91073 Digital Technologies 1.43: Implement basic procedures to produce a specified digital media outcome

Key messages from the standard

Students need to produce a specified digital media outcome. This means there must be specifications for the outcome, which need to be detailed and measurable. The specifications can be provided by the teacher or developed by the student.

The digital media outcome must demonstrate an integration of at least two media types and involve the use of basic procedures. The specified outcome must be appropriate for a student working at this curriculum level and must ensure students can demonstrate their skills in two media types.

Guidance on what constitutes basic tools and techniques is not provided in the explanatory notes for this standard. However some guidance can be found by looking at the examples of advanced tools and techniques which are listed in the NCEA Level 2 standard (AS91370) and backwards mapping from that to what seems sensible at this level. However, this list is not exhaustive. Examples are given for four media types and are an indication of what tools and techniques could be considered "advanced". If teachers and/or students decide to work with other types of digital media that are not covered in Explanatory Note 7 in AS91370 (such as digital audio) then the teacher will need to determine their own list of suitable tools and techniques.

All specified digital media content in the outcome must be original. However, as long as students create all the specified digital media outcome it is still possible for the students to be given, or access themselves, other copyright free media content to be included in the outcome. There is room for other content to be incorporated in the outcome which the student has not created, e.g. the school’s logo or assessor provided text. Contexts provided should enable students to be able to create their own digital media. The NZQA clarifications state “Explanatory Notes (EN) 5 and 6 give examples of the expectations of original content and digital media types. This note indicates that original content images or graphics should not be clip art or downloaded from the internet. The media outcome for this standard must incorporate original content. Learners can, for example, create web pages and integrate graphics or a video they have created, or they can produce their own desktop published document and integrate still images that they have captured. This will satisfy the requirement of EN3 of the standard, which requires an outcome that integrates media types and original content”.

In addition to using various tools and techniques to produce the outcome students must apply data integrity and testing procedures. A list of examples of possible data integrity and testing procedures is included in the assessment resource for this standard.

In the example given for a website this might mean, such things as:

  • visual previews of the website (to ensure that it is displaying appropriately throughout the development)
  • visual checks (to ensure that the content displays as planned in the design concept)
  • final checking of usability to ensure that the pages can be used in the ways you intended. (Usability enhancements may include, but are not limited to: information organisation, navigation, layout, screen elements, and mechanics.) 

For a print outcome, this might mean such things as:

  • using measurements to produce the outcome to a specific size, instead of trial and error.
  • printing test documents in black and white, to ensure that the content displays accurately and that the information used is correct
  • proofreading the text to ensure that it is readable and legible
  • checking that the order and hierarchy of information is logical and accurate
  • annotating draft copies with changes required.
  • Checking there are no missing links to asset files (such as image links) and that the quality of the printed outcome is of high standard, with no pixelisation.

It is a requirement for achieved that students follow legal, ethical and moral responsibilities as required for the outcome. This could include such things as clearly stating the source of images or text in terms of copyright, or insuring individual’s privacy is not compromised with the choice of images used or information disclosed in the outcome that is created. There is no step up to merit or excellence in this criteria.

The step up to merit and excellence is around accuracy, independence, and efficiency. There is no requirement for students to do extra tasks or use more advanced procedures in order to step up to merit or excellence. Good guidance on what is expected in terms of accuracy, independence, and efficiency is contained in the assessment resource for the standard available on TKI (see link below).

Note that at excellence the efficiency refers to both the outcome’s production and its use. So the usability of the final outcome is part of the evidence needed to award excellence, as well as the evidence of the efficient production of the outcome. Examples of efficiency related to the outcome’s usability include such things as: to minimise download time, all images for a website are optimised at 72dpi and reduced/cropped to the dimensions specified in the html.  

Other examples of accuracy and efficiency in a print media outcome are:

  • using tools to enhance accuracy such as grids & guides, alignment pallette, holding down shift to produce accurate shapes, frame fitting options
  • using features of the software that enhance efficiency such as naming layers, pathfinder, custom swatches, grouping, transformation
  • naming graphics and files correctly in organsied folders, to that links to placed elements are not broken.
  • Saving editable versions as well as flattened versions of graphics so that changes are efficient to make.

This is a practical “implement” standard so students are not required to develop detailed plans or keep logs of what they did each day, and they are not required to name and justify any software they have used. However, if students do name and justify the selection of the software, they may use that justification towards their external report for 91070.  So, it may be of benefit to your teaching and learning programme to incorporate this into your internal assessment or practice tasks.

For the most up to date information, teachers should be referring to the latest version of the standards, conditions of assessment and assessment resources on TKI and the moderators reports, clarifications documents and student exemplars on the NZQA website. See links below. 

Resources to support student achievement

Last updated May 30, 2018