Te Kete Ipurangi Navigation:

Te Kete Ipurangi
Communities
Schools

Te Kete Ipurangi user options:


Senior Secondary navigation


RSS

Section menu

AO/LOs

Curriculum strands

Specialist strands

AOs/LOs by level

Technological practice (TP)

6-1 | 6-2 | 6-3

7-1 | 7-2 | 7-3

8-1 | 8-2 | 8-3

Technological knowledge (TK)

6-1 | 6-2 | 6-3

7-1 | 7-2 | 7-3

8-1 | 8-2 | 8-3

Nature of technology (NT)

6-1 | 6-2

7-1 | 7-2

8-1 | 8-2

Design in technology (DET)

6-1 | 6-2

7-1 | 7-2

8-1/2

Manufacturing (MFG)

6-1 | 6-2

7-1 | 7-2

8-1/2

Technical areas (TCA)

8-1 

Construction and mechanical technologies (CMT)

6-1 | 6-2 | 6-3 | 6-4

6-5 | 6-6 | 6-7

7-1 |  7-2 |  7-3 |  7-4

7-5 |  7-6 |  7-7

8-1 | 8-2 | 8-3 | 8-4

8-5 | 8-6 | 8-7

Design and visual communication (DVC)

6-1 | 6-2 | 6-3

7-1 | 7-2 | 7-3

8-1 | 8-2 | 8-3

Digital technologies (DTG)

6-1 | 6-2 | 6-3 | 6-4

6-5 | 6-6 | 6-7 | 6-8

6-9 | 6-10 | 6-11 | 6-12

7-1 |  7-2 |  7-3 |  7-4

7-5 |  7-6 |  7-7 |  7-8

7-9 |  7-10 |  7-11 |  7-12

8-1 | 8-2 | 8-3 | 8-4

8-5 |  8-6/7 | 8-8 | 8-9

8-10 |  8-11 | 8-12

Processing technologies (PRT)

6-1 | 6-2 | 6-3

7-1 | 7-2 | 7-3

8-1/2 | 8-3


Knowledge of digital infrastructure DTG 7-11

Achievement standard 2.50 AS91377

Knowledge of digital infrastructure focuses on the concepts of digital infrastructure within personal computers, local area networks (LANs), and Wide Area Networks (WANs). At level 7 the focus is on LANs.

Learning objective: DTG 7-11

Students will:

  • demonstrate understanding of LAN infrastructure systems.

Indicators

Students can:

  • describe networking concepts such as the characteristics and purposes of a local area network (LAN), standard networking models, bandwidth, data transmission modes, IP addressing, DHCP, NAT, and ICMP
  • explain why the components have been used in a LAN to achieve the desired characteristics
  • explain how the connection technologies allow the components to function in a LAN
  • describe the access control method used in the Ethernet architecture 
  • compare and contrast the characteristics and the purposes of peer-to-peer LANs and client/server LANs
  • explain the layers in the TCP/IP networking model and the role of this model in a LAN architecture
  • explain IP (Internet Protocol) addressing with reference to static addresses and dynamically obtained addresses
  • discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the common cable, fibre and wireless technologies for connecting the components of a LAN
  • discuss IP addressing schema including the consequences for static addresses and dynamically obtained addresses
  • discuss how the Ethernet Media access control method used in the Ethernet architecture manages Ethernet traffic on a LAN.

Progression

At level 6, students learn about the common components of basic digital infrastructures consisting of personal computer hardware, associated peripherals, and system software. Students learn about the purpose of the components, typical connections and data flow between components, characteristics of components that limit their inter-operability, and procedures and protocols for installing or replacing a component or a program.

At level 7, students progress to learn about concepts of digital infrastructure associated with local area networks (LANs).

Teacher guidance

To support students to develop understandings about LAN infrastructure systems at level 7, teachers could:

  • provide students with the opportunity to explore local area networks (LANs) consisting of a number of networked devices, which includes at least three PCs connected with an unmanaged switch, simple server elements and a single connection to the internet 
  • provide the opportunity for students to explore the characteristics and purposes of LANs, and discuss their components, network layers, bandwidth, data transmission modes, IP addressing, DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol), NAT (Network Address Translation) and ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol) 
  • assist in the refinement of reflective and inquiry questions related to the understanding of procedures and protocols associated with the development and maintenance of LANs 
  • support students to prepare reports including ways to structure a report and literacy strategies to support report writing in a way that will allow students to describe, explain, and discuss 
  • ensure students have opportunities to practice report writing.

Contexts for teaching and learning

This learning objective is about knowledge of LANs and is not about creating or administrating a LAN. However, within a programme of work it is possible to link this knowledge (about LANs) with the skills needed to administer a LAN (refer to DGT7-12 Design a digital infrastructure system). Students often learn best by doing, so the knowledge covered in this objective can be developed by practical learning experiences.

In this learning objective (and the associated achievement standard) a LAN consists of a number of networked devices, which include at least three PCs connected with an unmanaged switch, simple server elements and a single connection to the internet.

Through a mix of theory and practical exercises, students need to develop an understanding of networking concepts including: the characteristics and purposes of a LAN, standard networking models Open System Interconnection (OSI) and Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP), bandwidth, data transmission modes, IP addressing, DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol), NAT (Network Address Translation) and ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol). Students also need to develop an understanding of the components in a LAN, and the connection technologies.

As a context for teaching and learning, use a Local Area Network (LAN) that students are familiar with. Students need to explore that LAN and then demonstrate their understanding of LAN technologies by:

  • describing network concepts, explaining why components have been used in a LAN to achieve the desired characteristics, explaining how the connection technologies allow the components to function in a LAN, 
  • describing the access control method used in the Ethernet architecture.

The evidence for assessment could be presented as an investigative report where the student investigates different network components to demonstrate understanding of LAN infrastructure systems. The LAN setup must be advanced enough to allow for a full investigation. Selections could include basic home setups, through to business or enterprise examples. As students research the selected LANs they are able to create clear diagrams that illustrate the differing connection technologies and components, and are able to comment meaningfully on the advantages and disadvantages, consequences and management of traffic on a LAN.

This learning could be part of a practical LAN setup (or a simulation that is capable of exploring the concepts) where students are engaged in learning about the practical configuration of a LAN environment. Students should have access to a range of network devices (clients) such as: Raspberry Pi, Windows OS computer, Mac OS X, Linux. The LAN environment will provide students with the ability to test configurations and investigate LAN infrastructure and allow the practical application of skills. Case studies of existing solutions will provide students with a depth of understanding. This simulated testing and practical skill development is not part of the assessment, but may contribute to other portfolios of evidence for other standards.

In this case, students are assessed on their understanding of local area network technologies implemented across a range of varying sized networks.

There needs to be a balance between "knowing about" and "learning by doing", but it needs to be emphasised that this is a knowledge objective rather than a skills objective so students will be assessed on their understanding and not on their practical skills. Some aspects of practical work will allow students to reach the level of understanding necessary to be able to explain and discuss concepts. Students could create, assemble, and configure a Local Area Network and be able to establish a connection between devices, either through file sharing, ftp or http connection.

If students are doing practical work as part of the teaching and learning then they are required to use their working environment and equipment in a safe and correct manner at all times. Teachers should refer to the relevant sections in Safety in Technology Education: A Guidance Manual for New Zealand Schools.

It is strongly recommended that any practical work associated with the teaching and assessment of this learning objective is setup and delivered in a way that will not compromise the school network (for example, do not give students access to the schools internal network).

Literacy considerations

Teachers need to ensure students understand the large amount of specialist language and abbreviations related to digital infrastructure such as "connection technologies" or "networking concepts" or "TCP/IP".

In addition, students must understand the language necessary to prepare a report to demonstrate their understanding about digital infrastructure. Students need to understand words such as describe, explain, compare and contrast, and discuss. Teachers need to give students strategies to understand what is expected for these different words; for example, how is it different to "explain IP addressing" as compared with "discussing IP addressing"?

Teachers need to support students to:

  • develop a glossary of terminology related to LANs 
  • develop a checklist to ensure they have covered all the necessary requirements to demonstrate their understanding of LAN technologies 
  • structure a report in a clear and concise manner
  • understand the importance of key words such as describing, explaining, or discussing
  • develop the level of thinking required for an explanation or a discussion
  • develop presentation skills that include using annotated diagrams that convey standards and protocols 
  • acknowledge sources appropriately and not plagiarise information.

Resources to support teaching and learning

Assessment for qualifications

The following achievement standard(s) could assess learning outcomes from this learning objective:

  • AS91377 Digital technologies 2.50: Demonstrate understanding of local area network technologies

Key messages from the standard

  • This standard is around understanding rather than practical implementation, although the practical implementation will support student understanding and will be able to be assessed using other assessment standards. This standard aligns well with some of the recognised industry accreditation framework, but does not exclude learners who approach this without going through this industry accreditation pathway.
  • For the purpose of this standard a Local Area Network (LAN) consists of a number of networked devices, which include at least three PCs connected with an unmanaged switch, simple server elements, and a single connection to the internet (refer to Explanatory note 3).
  • Not all of the devices in Explanatory note 5 necessarily need to be included but any device such as a switch or a modem router that is required to make the network function should be included. Explanatory note 3 and 5 need to be considered together.
  • Students need to include information on all of the networking concepts in Explanatory note 4. It is essential that networking concepts covered will include: the characteristics and purposes of a LAN, standard networking models Open System Interconnection (OSI) and Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP), bandwidth, data transmission modes, IP addressing, DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol), NAT (Network Address Translation) and ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol).
  • Students need to include all the connection technologies mentioned in Explanatory note 6.
  • Students should prepare a report that covers all the necessary requirements to demonstrate their understanding of LAN technologies.
  • Students can collaborate on the practical and research components to gather information to generate a report, but they should prepare their report individually.
  • It is expected that students do not plagiarise. Sources of information should be appropriately acknowledged.

 Resources to support student achievement

Last updated June 8, 2018



Footer: