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AO/LOs

Curriculum strands

Specialist strands

AOs/LOs by level

Technological practice (TP)

6-1 | 6-2 | 6-3

7-1 | 7-2 | 7-3

8-1 | 8-2 | 8-3

Technological knowledge (TK)

6-1 | 6-2 | 6-3

7-1 | 7-2 | 7-3

8-1 | 8-2 | 8-3

Nature of technology (NT)

6-1 | 6-2

7-1 | 7-2

8-1 | 8-2

Design in technology (DET)

6-1 | 6-2

7-1 | 7-2

8-1/2

Manufacturing (MFG)

6-1 | 6-2

7-1 | 7-2

8-1/2

Technical areas (TCA)

8-1 

Construction and mechanical technologies (CMT)

6-1 | 6-2 | 6-3 | 6-4

6-5 | 6-6 | 6-7

7-1 |  7-2 |  7-3 |  7-4

7-5 |  7-6 |  7-7

8-1 | 8-2 | 8-3 | 8-4

8-5 | 8-6 | 8-7

Design and visual communication (DVC)

6-1 | 6-2 | 6-3

7-1 | 7-2 | 7-3

8-1 | 8-2 | 8-3

Digital technologies (DTG)

6-1 | 6-2 | 6-3 | 6-4

6-5 | 6-6 | 6-7 | 6-8

6-9 | 6-10 | 6-11 | 6-12

7-1 |  7-2 |  7-3 |  7-4

7-5 |  7-6 |  7-7 |  7-8

7-9 |  7-10 |  7-11 |  7-12

8-1 | 8-2 | 8-3 | 8-4

8-5 |  8-6/7 | 8-8 | 8-9

8-10 |  8-11 | 8-12

Processing technologies (PRT)

6-1 | 6-2 | 6-3

7-1 | 7-2 | 7-3

8-1/2 | 8-3


Brief development TP 8-1

Brief development is a dynamic process that reflects the complex interactions within on-going technological practice.

A brief is developed to clearly describe a desired outcome that would meet a need or realise an opportunity, and takes into account the physical and social environment.

It is comprised of:

  • a conceptual statement that communicates what is to be done and why it should be done. This statement is based on findings from the exploration of the context and issue from which the need or opportunity has been identified.
  • specifications that define the requirements of a technological outcome in terms of its physical and functional nature.

    The specifications provide guidance for on-going evaluation during the development of an outcome, as well as serving as an evaluative tool against which the final outcome can be justified as fit for purpose. Identifying broader attributes is a precursor to developing specifications.

Achievement objectives: TP 8-1

Students will justify:

  • the nature of an intended outcome in relation to the context and the issue to be resolved
  • specifications in terms of key stakeholder feedback and wider community considerations.

Indicators

  • Identifies and evaluates a range of contexts to select an authentic issue.
  • Explores context to identify considerations related to fitness for purpose in its broadest sense.
  • Identifies a need or opportunity relevant to their selected issue.
  • Establishes a conceptual statement that justifies the nature of the outcome and why such an outcome should be developed with reference to the issue being addressed and the wider context.
  • Establishes the specifications for an outcome and its development using stakeholder feedback and based on the nature of the outcome required to address the need or opportunity, consideration of the environment in which the outcome will be situated, and resources available.
  • Communicates specifications that allow an outcome to be evaluated as fit for purpose in the broadest sense.
  • Justifies the specifications as based on stakeholder feedback and the nature of the outcome required to address the need or opportunity, consideration of the environment in which the outcome will be situated, and resources available.

Progression

A key step up in brief development at curriculum level 8 is the concept of fitness for purpose in the broadest sense. Students may hold a more narrow definition of ‘fitness for purpose’ in terms of an outcome meeting the specifications and ‘doing its job’. At level 8, fitness for purpose in its broadest sense involves thinking about the practices used to develop the outcome as well as the outcome itself. Such judgments may include considerations of the outcome’s technical and social acceptability, sustainability of resources used, ethical nature of testing practices, cultural appropriateness of trialling procedures, determination of life cycle, maintenance, ultimate disposal, and health and safety.

Teacher guidance

Teachers could support students undertaking brief development at level 8 to:

  • identify a context that offers a range of issues for them to explore. (Context refers to the wider social and physical environment in which technological development occurs. Contexts may include but are not limited to: storage, afterschool snacks, outdoor living, sustainable energy, sport, educational software, streetwear, portability, furniture) 
  • identify considerations that will need to be taken into account when making judgments of fitness for purpose in its broadest sense. (Fitness for purpose in its broadest sense refers to judgments of the fitness of the outcome itself as well as the practices used to develop the outcome. Such judgments may include but are not limited to considerations of the outcome’s technical and social acceptability, sustainability of resources used, ethical nature of testing practices, cultural appropriateness of trialling procedures, determination of life cycle, maintenance, ultimate disposal, health and safety) 
  • select an authentic issue within their selected context 
  • identify a need or opportunity relevant to the issue and context 
  • understand the physical and functional nature required of their outcome 
  • justify the nature of their outcome in terms of the issue and context 
  • develop and justify specifications that will allow the evaluation of the outcome and its development to be judged as fit for purpose in the broadest sense.

Contexts for teaching and learning

  • Brief development is a dynamic and iterative process. Students need to go through a process in order to arrive at a final brief. This process is likely to involve establishing and refining the attributes required in the outcome, seeking on-going feedback from stakeholders, functional modeling, developing the required attributes into specifications, and on-going consideration of the context. Further information on the brief development process can be found in the explanatory paper on brief development (see the link at the end of these key messages). Students’ understanding of, and ability to undertake, brief development will be increased if they have a good understanding of other components of technology, and particularly ‘characteristics of technological outcomes’ and ‘technological modeling’.
  • The idea of ‘context considerations’ is mentioned several times in the criteria:
    • Establishing an issue and identifying related context considerations.
    • Explaining the context considerations as related to an established issue.
    • On-going reflection of views of key stakeholders associated with the need or opportunity and wider stakeholders associated with the context.
    • On-going reflection of context considerations including the social and physical environment where the outcome will be developed and situated.

      Assist students to take this big picture view and be aware of the context they are working in and the implications for their own practice.

  • Ensure students understand the importance of the initial exploration of possible issues, establishing an issue, the context considerations associated with that issue, and the process of determining possible needs and opportunities (rather than jumping to the solution and writing specifications without undertaking this initial exploration).
  • Ensure the students select an issue where stakeholders are accessible by obtaining feedback from both key and wider stakeholders. This is crucial in brief development.

Literacy considerations

Support students to understand:

  • the language in the standard associated with assessment as well as the specialist language related to brief development (for example, context is the overall focus of a technological development or of a technological learning experience, while issue refers to a specific subset of the context that will allow needs and opportunities to be identified)
  • the specialist language such as context considerations or fitness for purpose in its broadest sense;
    but in addition they must understand:
    • the words used to describe the level of expected performance at each achievement grade, for example, explaining or justifying 
    • the significance of these words and what is expected at each achievement level.

Resources to support student achievement

Assessment for qualifications

The following achievement standard could assess learning outcomes from this achievement objective:

  • AS 91608 Technological practice 3.1: Undertake brief development to address an issue within a determined context.

Key messages from the standard

  • The step-up to merit and excellence is related to the concept of fitness for purpose in the broadest sense.
    • At achieved: Developing a final brief that allows judgment of an outcome’s fitness for purpose in the broadest sense.
    • At merit: Demonstrating how the specifications allow a judgment of an outcome’s fitness for purpose in the broadest sense.
    • At excellence: Justifying why the specifications allow a judgment of an outcome’s fitness for purpose in the broadest sense. Teachers will need to ensure students understand what is expected to reach merit or excellence in terms of either demonstrating how (merit) or justifying why (excellence) the specifications allow a judgment of the outcome’s fitness for purpose in the broadest sense. Justify means to give reasons and providing supporting evidence. This justification is likely to come from a thorough brief development process from such things as: research, stakeholder consultation, or functional modelling.
  • AS 91608 Explanatory note 3 states the context refers to the wider social and physical environment in which technological development occurs, and provides examples of possible contexts.
  • AS 91608 Explanatory note 4 and AS 91608 Explanatory note 5 are key to understanding how brief development at level 8 is a step up from brief development at lower levels.

    Note that clients are not mentioned in the standard so it is no longer a requirement that students need to be developing a brief for a client issue as it was for the previous level 3 technological practice standards. Students still need key and wider stakeholders but they do not need a client. However they may have a client if they wish.

  • AS 91608 Explanatory note 4 states it is intended that students will establish an issue and explore related context considerations. This is a step up from level 2 where students identify an issue from a teacher given context. At level 3 this is an iterative process to continually link the context, the issue, the need or opportunity, and the outcome being developed.
  • AS 91608 Explanatory note 6 states an outcome is a conceptual design for an outcome and/or the technological outcome itself (prototype). This means the brief development work for this standard can be for either a conceptual design or for an actual outcome. There is no requirement in this standard that the outcome specified in the brief is actually produced by the student – this standard is assessing brief development work and not the students’ ability to produce a conceptual design for an outcome or to actually make the outcome.

Last updated June 8, 2018



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