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Curriculum strands

Specialist strands

AOs/LOs by level

Technological practice (TP)

6-1 | 6-2 | 6-3

7-1 | 7-2 | 7-3

8-1 | 8-2 | 8-3

Technological knowledge (TK)

6-1 | 6-2 | 6-3

7-1 | 7-2 | 7-3

8-1 | 8-2 | 8-3

Nature of technology (NT)

6-1 | 6-2

7-1 | 7-2

8-1 | 8-2

Design in technology (DET)

6-1 | 6-2

7-1 | 7-2


Manufacturing (MFG)

6-1 | 6-2

7-1 | 7-2


Technical areas (TCA)


Construction and mechanical technologies (CMT)

6-1 | 6-2 | 6-3 | 6-4

6-5 | 6-6 | 6-7

7-1 |  7-2 |  7-3 |  7-4

7-5 |  7-6 |  7-7

8-1 | 8-2 | 8-3 | 8-4

8-5 | 8-6 | 8-7

Design and visual communication (DVC)

6-1 | 6-2 | 6-3

7-1 | 7-2 | 7-3

8-1 | 8-2 | 8-3

Digital technologies (DTG)

6-1 | 6-2 | 6-3 | 6-4

6-5 | 6-6 | 6-7 | 6-8

6-9 | 6-10 | 6-11 | 6-12

7-1 |  7-2 |  7-3 |  7-4

7-5 |  7-6 |  7-7 |  7-8

7-9 |  7-10 |  7-11 |  7-12

8-1 | 8-2 | 8-3 | 8-4

8-5 |  8-6/7 | 8-8 | 8-9

8-10 |  8-11 | 8-12

Processing technologies (PRT)

6-1 | 6-2 | 6-3

7-1 | 7-2 | 7-3

8-1/2 | 8-3

Knowledge of product preservation, packaging and storage PRT 8-3

Product preservation, packaging and storage focuses on the ways in which products can be treated during and after their development in order to maintain their integrity over time by inhibiting internal degradation and/or protecting them from external damage.

Learning objective: PRT 8-3

Students will:

  • demonstrate understanding of complex concepts and techniques used in the preservation, packaging and storage of products.


  • Explains how environmental factors interact to influence product quality.
  • Compares and contrasts preservation and packaging techniques for a product in an international environment.
  • Compares and contrasts legal, marketing and cultural requirements for labelling in two countries.


Initially students should have progressed from demonstrating their understanding of basic concepts relating to why certain types of products require the use of preservation techniques, which techniques are suitable for use in domestic settings where the product planned to be used in the near future and storage within known environmental conditions. They should also have an understanding of how packaging and storage procedures work together to further protect products in local environments.

Teacher guidance

To support students to implement complex procedures to make a processed product, at level 8, teachers could:

  • provide opportunity for students to debate how the preservation, packaging and storage of products have been influenced by changes in global distribution chains. This includes ways products can be made suitable for a range of consumers who may live in different political and social environments to where the product originated
  • guide students to develop understanding of how preserving/packaging and storage work together to ensure products maintain integrity and acceptability over extended times and variable physical, social and political environments
  • provide opportunity for students to explore a range of products to understand how the preservation/ packaging and/or storage has changed cultures/society (needs, desires, the way life is experienced) in the past and present and to debate how they may change cultures/society in the probable future
  • provide opportunities for students to become familiar with a wide range of complex preservation techniques (for example, freeze drying, UHT sterilisation, cryogenic freezing, irradiation, high pressure sterilisation), and packaging (for example, aseptic filling, modified atmosphere packs, crush protection, dosage control, brand value packaging), and storage procedures (for example, accelerated storage life trials, modified atmosphere packs commonly used for products destined for international markets)
  • provide students with opportunities to explore the implications and complexities involved in developing and distributing ‘risk’ products for international markets. This would include understanding the properties and implications of the materials used in the product and what is required of the product in terms of complex distribution chains. That is withstanding significant changes of time and environmental conditions including changing social, cultural and ethical dimensions.

Contexts for teaching and learning

Situation of use refers to the primary reason a user has selected the product. For example - tramping, camping, heat and eat, special occasions.

Students will demonstrate their understandings about:

  • combinations of preservation mechanisms that are used to maintain the integrity of specific products, how each preservation mechanism works and how it contributes to overall product integrity
  • why the same material may be preserved in different ways to address the requirements of the user.

Encourage students to use examples that relate to products that are preserved, packaged, and stored using a number of preservation mechanisms.

Students will research and synthesise information to present a report or presentation. The presentation could be in the form of a slide show, display board, portfolio, or written report, and could include annotated flow diagrams with written discussion, photographs and drawings.

This presentation/report must clearly communicate the following:

  • Why combinations of preservation mechanisms are used to maintain the integrity of specific products.
  • How and explains why each preservation mechanism works and how it contributes to overall product integrity.
  • Why the same material may be preserved in different ways in relation to the requirements of the user, cost, storage life and environmental sustainability.
  • The use of combined preservation mechanisms in specific products in relation to the nature of the materials used in the product, user requirements, cost, storage life and environmental sustainability.

Evidence needs to include such things as photographs with annotations, written discussions, diagrams, and tables.

Literacy considerations

Support students to:

  • research and access credible information, including materials from a range of sources
  • investigate the range of products that include multiple preservation mechanisms in their manufacturer
  • synthesise a range of factual information into clear presentations that address the criteria of the standard
  • structure a technical report detailing the concepts outlined above.

Students could gather and analyse their evidence independently or in groups, but need to write their presentations independently.

Resources to support student achievement

Other resources

  • Brown, A. (2008). Understanding Food – Principles and Preparation, 4th Edition. Brooks/Cole.
  • Campbell-Platt, G. (ed). (2009). Food Science and Technology. Wiley Blackwell.
  • Hallam, E. (2005). Understanding Industrial Practices in Food Technology. Nelson Thornes.
  • Hutton, T. (2001). Food Manufacturing: An Overview (Key topics in Food Science and Technology No 4). Campden & Chorleywood Food Research Association.
  • Hutton, T. (2003). Food Packaging: An Introduction (Key topics in Food Science and Technology No 7). Campden & Chorleywood Food Research Association.
  • Hutton, T. (2005). Food Preservation: An Introduction (Key topics in Food Science and Technology No 9). Campden & Chorleywood Food Research Association.
  • Murano, P. (2002). Understanding Food Science and Technology. Brooks/Cole.
  • Research activities could include a visit to food product manufacturers in your region, or visits from a food technologist. See Futureintech Ambassadors.
  • NCEA – Resources for Internally Assessed Achievement Standards
  • Technology matrix Jan 2014 – may be accessed from the related resources link on the right had column
  • Technology Conditions of Assessment draft
  • NZQA technology exemplars
  • Technology online: Technology in the NZC – Indicators of progression

Assessment for qualifications

The following achievement standard could assess learning outcomes from this learning objective:

  • AS91644 Processing technologies 3.62: Demonstrate understanding of combined preservation mechanisms used to maintain product integrity.

Key messages from the standard

  • Preservation mechanisms are physical, chemical, or microbiological and may include heat treatment, low temperature treatment, moisture removal, acidity control, fermentation, chemical change, irradiation, atmosphere modification, chilled storage, and aseptic packaging. Combined preservation mechanisms are important in a range of contexts where product integrity is critical, such as fermented and non-fermented foods and beverages, and biologically and/or chemically active products. In the context of food products, one example of combined preservation mechanisms is hurdle technology. Hurdle technology is one example of combined preservation mechanisms. However, not all products that use a combination of preservation techniques are examples of hurdle technology. For example, dried milk powder uses a combination of preservation mechanisms but is not hurdle technology.
  • Specific products are those that are preserved using a combination of at least three preservation mechanisms. Therefore it is essential that teachers support students to select a suitable product to investigate.
  • Product integrity may relate to: microbiological viability, separation, colour change, loss or gain of moisture, changes in nutritional content, enzymatic or chemical activity, and changes in size, shape or form.
  • Materials may include: food ingredients, plant extracts, microorganisms, concrete, fibreglass, woodchips, recycled materials, resins.

Last updated September 28, 2018