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# Achievement objectives

*The New Zealand Curriculum* specifies three strands for mathematics and statistics at level 6 and two strands at levels 7 and 8 (the first two strands combine to make a single mathematics strand). It is important that students see and make sense of the many connections within and across these strands.

See achievement objectives by level for individual AOs. Each achievements objective includes a set of indicators, with examples of possible teaching activities, and guidance about possible context elaborations and national qualifications. Notes about what is new or has changed are also included.

All achievement objectives have been given a three-part code consisting of:

- the strand (NA for number and algebra, GM for geometry and measurement, S for statistics, and M for mathematics)
- the curriculum level
- the ordinal position of the achievement objective (1st, 2nd, 3rd, and so on) as listed in the
*Curriculum*.

Scroll down to learn more about the strands, curriculum progression, indicators and context elaborations for mathematics and statistics.

Read more about the
changes for mathematics and
statistics in *The New Zealand Curriculum*.

## Strands

The Curriculum specifies three strands for mathematics and statistics at level 6 and two strands at levels 7 and 8. (The first two strands are combined to make a mathematics strand.) It is important that students see and make sense of the many connections within and across these strands.

### Number and algebra (NA)

Number involves calculating and estimating: using appropriate mental, written, or machine calculation methods in flexible ways, knowing when it is appropriate to use estimation, and discerning whether results are reasonable. Algebra involves generalising and representing the patterns and relationships found in numbers, shapes, and measures.

### Geometry and measurement (GM)

Geometry involves recognising and using the properties and symmetries of shapes and describing position and movement. Measurement involves quantifying the attributes of objects using appropriate units and instruments. Measurement also involves predicting and calculating rates of change.

### Mathematics (M)

Number and algebra and geometry and measurement combine at level 7 and level 8.

### Statistics (S)

Statistics involves identifying problems that can be explored by the use of appropriate data, designing investigations, collecting data, exploring and using patterns and relationships in data, solving problems, and communicating findings. Statistics also involves interpreting statistical information, evaluating data-based arguments, and dealing with uncertainty and variation.

## Progression

As students move from level to level, their grasp of mathematical and statistical concepts and their use in different situations becomes more sophisticated and they work more independently.

In mathematics, students will be able to solve problems and model situations of increasing complexity. Over time, students develop greater representational fluency, the ability to generalise, knowledge of a wider range of number systems, and effective mathematical reasoning.

In statistics, students explore and critique statistical and probability situations to greater depth and with more independence. Over time, students develop their statistical concepts and analytical tools.

## Indicators

Indicators are examples of the behaviours and capabilities that a teacher might expect to observe in a student who is achieving at the appropriate level. Teachers may wish to add further examples of their own.

## Context elaborations

Context elaborations are possible contexts for learning, with a suggestion of how they might be used with the focus achievement objective.

The listed context elaborations are examples only. Teachers can select and use entirely different contexts in response to local situation, community relevance, and students’ interests and needs.

## What has changed?

The Curriculum incorporates many content and pedagogy changes. Read more about the changes for mathematics and statistics.

Last updated September 2, 2012