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Assessment

Matrix

There is a matrix available for Level 1,3 & 3 Digital Technologies and Hangarau Matihiko.

Digital Technologies and Hangarau Matihiko Achievement Standards

These achievement standards assess the student’s application of knowledge and learning. Scaffolding should be done prior to assessment and scaled back appropriately to ensure students are applying their own knowledge to complete the assessment.

The achievement standards expect students to make selections and decisions as part of their outcome development. Students should be allowed choice to develop their own unique outcome. This approach allows students to show application of their prior knowledge obtained from a wider teaching and learning programme. Teachers need to question HOW and WHY students have made these decisions to ensure they fully understand the underpinning knowledge.

It is not appropriate for students to provide evidence for the standard by following an internet tutorial or a templated series of steps

Refer to the pedagogy section for more information.

Key Ideas for the assessment of the Achievement Standards

1. Explaining and addressing relevant implications

Several of the Level 2 and 3 Digital Technologies Achievement Standards require students to explain (Achieved) and address (Merit) relevant implications.

Examples of relevant implications include:

  • social
  • cultural
  • legal
  • ethical
  • intellectual property
  • privacy
  • accessibility
  • usability
  • functionality
  • aesthetics
  • sustainability and future proofing
  • end-user considerations
  • health and safety.

Achieved 

Students use information from research and/or classwork within the specific learning context, to identify the implications that are relevant to the outcome being developed. They can give reasons why the implications are important to consider when developing the outcome and how the implications would affect the development of the outcome.  The explanation focuses on the specific context, rather than a general definition of the identified implications.

For example, in the context of website development, the student can explain why consistency of navigation, layout and icons enhance usability.  They may also explain how they plan to utilise this knowledge when developing their outcome. 

Address

Students demonstrate that they can apply their knowledge of relevant implications to inform the development of their outcome. The evidence that they addressed the relevant implications can be seen within:

  • the actual outcome
  • the testing procedures
  • the iterative improvement

For example, in the same context, the student’s website has consistent navigation, layout and icons.  The student has tested navigation and layout options with the end-users and has improved both the layout and navigation based on the feedback from the end-users.

Examples of testing questions (in a website development context), linked to relevant implications

  • Does this site adhere to legal requirements? (content and images meet copyright requirements)
  • Is the site accessible? (via multiple devices, alt tags)
  • Does the site function properly? (images display, image quality and resolution correct, all navigation links work)
  • Is the site readable (usability)? (proofing of spelling, grammar, appropriate font sizes and colour contrast)
  • Is the site aesthetically pleasing? (have design principles such as repetition, alignment, proximity, white space and typographical conventions been followed)
  • Does the site meet end user requirements? (what were they? have they been addressed?)

Refined Outcome (Excellence)

Although relevant implications are not specifically referred to in the Excellence criteria, the emphasis on iterative improvement and development to produce a high-quality outcome means that relevant implications are still a key aspect of Excellence. 

Students who are awarded Excellence will have shown that they have addressed a range of relevant implications to a high standard.  They will have iteratively tested the outcome to ensure it is meeting the relevant implications and used the information they gain from testing to refine the outcome and improve the quality of the outcome. 

2. Volume and presentation of assessment evidence

Students can provide sufficient evidence that they have met any level of achievement by providing a summary of their research and the findings from the trialling and development process, rather than submitting every file they created during the activity. Students should be encouraged to submit evidence in a way that is concise, but still provides evidence of all aspects of the standard.  For example, students could combine their files into one or two coherent document(s).

Students need to ensure that evidence for outcomes that require:

  • specific software requirements
  • weblinks
  • 3rd party software
  • frameworks
  • libraries
  • online project management tools
  • etc

(e.g. web-based databases) remains available and accessible. This could be managed by a URL, a short screencast, or a series of annotated screengrabs. Care must be taken that URLs etc. remain live and accessible to all users. 

If students are providing video evidence, they should take care that these are short and succinct.  For example; videos should be between 3-5 mins and in a format such as mp4, which has a small file size. A commentary in the video will help to reduce the need for additional written evidence.

Annotated screengrabs and short videos can be used to provide evidence of improvement of testing and iterative improvement.

3. Templates/Writing Frames 

If assessors provide templates or writing frames to support or scaffold student learning, care should be taken that these support, rather than restrict, student thinking. Students need to be able to demonstrate that they have met the requirements of the standard using their own thinking and decision-making processes.

 4. Authenticity 

Students must be assessed on their own work and should clearly indicate what is theirs and what has been imported from elsewhere. For example, if auto-generated code, a Bootstrap framework or GUI generation are used.

The intent of the new achievement standards

Level 1

Level 2

Level 3

Level 1

AS 91877 1.1 Develop a proposal for a digital outcome

3 credits

This standard involves developing a proposal for a digital outcome which identifies the end users, the specifications (the technical and measurable elements), the requirements (the functional elements that the project must have to make it successful and fit for purpose) and the resources that are required. Refinement of the proposal involves development through reflection and feedback to create a more informed and effective proposal.

This standard does not specify that a stakeholder or stakeholder feedback is required and a well thought out succinct document of two to three pages summarising a broad investigation into the topic should be enough to achieve. The focus should be on the quality of the proposal not the quantity of writing. This standard constitutes 3 credits and as such should reflect 30 hours of teaching and learning and the quality of the proposal should reflect this.

AS 91878 1.2 Develop a design for a digital outcome

3 credits

This standard requires students to develop a design for a digital outcome for a specific purpose by researching and generating a range of design ideas with an end user in mind. Those ideas are refined by feedback and reflection taking into consideration the appropriateness of the outcome and any relevant social and end user considerations.

This standard does not specify that a stakeholder or stakeholder feedback is required. A range of ideas should be more than two. This standard constitutes 3 credits and as such should reflect 30 hours of teaching and learning. Evidence could be presented in portfolio format containing a variety of media types with the focus on quality rather than quantity of evidence. 

AS 91879 1.3 Develop a digital outcome to manage data

3 credits

This standard involves creating a digital outcome that manages data. Students demonstrate the ability to structure, organise, query and present data for a purpose and end user using appropriate tools. Testing procedures and consideration for the end user and the relevant implications of the data are implicit in the development of the outcome. Refinement of the outcome involves iterative improvement and more effective presentation of data.

Data management software like Filemaker Pro, Access or MySQL would be appropriate for this standard.

AS 91880 1.4 Develop a digital media outcome

4 credits

This standard requires a student to develop a digital media outcome using appropriate tools, techniques and design elements. Successful outcomes will ensure data integrity through testing and show consideration of relevant implications and end user needs.

Refinement involves the iterative development of a more effective design that further addresses end user considerations and relevant implications.

Media outcomes include web pages, websites, print design, animations, 3D models, 3D animations, games, digital audio, movies and other similar creations.

The assessment evidence should be the outcome itself, however, this can be supported by other written evidence, teacher judgments or student reflections but this is not explicitly required by the standard.

The exception to this is the requirement for students to describe implications that are relevant to the outcome. This could be evidenced through a succinct written summary. Quality of evidence not quantity is important to consider. 

AS 91881 1.5 Develop an electronics outcome 

6 credits

This standard involves creating an electronics outcome using relevant techniques and resources that consist of a working combination of hardware and software components that perform a specific function. Existing embedded software libraries can be used and/or modified for the purpose at this level.

Additionally, this standard requires evidence of knowledge as students are to describe the interfaces and functions of components and systems used in the development of the outcome.

There is also a requirement to describe implications relevant to the outcome.

Refinement of the outcome involves iterative improvement through thorough testing, debugging and improvements on the design as well as showing justification of their choice of components and systems.

Electronics knowledge is important and underpins the outcome. However students are not required to explicitly demonstrate knowledge of individual components and protocols as this is implied in the development of the final outcome. Teachers need to ensure that a final high quality outcome has been developed via students’ thinking and their process (student driven development). Teachers need to question HOW and WHY students have made these decisions to ensure they fully understand the underpinning knowledge.

AS 91882 1.6 Develop a computer system

4 credits

This standard involves creating a computer system using relevant tools, procedures and protocols when installing and configuring hardware, software and peripherals for a purpose and end user. The computer system should have gone through troubleshooting and testing procedures to identify and resolve hardware and software faults. The student’s evidence should include an investigation of the hardware and software components and how they relate to the requirements of the end user and any relevant implications.

Refinement of the outcome involves informed development of the outcome based on troubleshooting, analysis and justification of components in response to the end user considerations.

Teachers need to question HOW and WHY students have made these decisions to ensure they fully understand underpinning knowledge.

AS 91883 1.7 Develop a computer program
4 credits

This standard involves writing a computer program in a suitable programming language that performs a specific task. The task should be of sufficient rigour to ensure the use of data stored in collections (e.g. lists, array, dictionaries) AND/OR user-defined methods, functions or procedures. Some code comments and a logical program structure are required at the achieved level.  At merit or excellence, the focus is on meaningful commenting and variable naming. Evidence of testing must be provided. If this is observed, then the teacher has to provide that evidence. For merit and excellence, students must show an organised approach to testing.

Flowcharts, pseudo code and test-tables are not assessed or required to be evidenced by this standard.

Refinement of the program is evidenced by improved program flexibility, through better use of methods and relevant parameters, following the relevant and consistent coding conventions of the language and improved testing and debugging processes. 

AS 91884 1.8 Use basic iterative processes to develop a digital outcome

6 credits

This achievement standard involves using basic iterative processes to develop a digital outcome that addresses a problem, need, opportunity or interest.

This standard naturally combines with an "outcome" standard to facilitate development and refinement of that outcome (ie. media outcome, computer program, computer system, electronics outcome).

Iteration involves initial planning by decomposing the whole process into a series of smaller tasks.

Students iteratively develop, trial, and improve components in order to develop an increasingly refined outcome. During the development process, students are expected to describe and address relevant implications.

The task needs to be sufficiently challenging so that the outcome is not entirely clear at the beginning. This allows students to inform and refine the outcome through the information gained from trialling and development.

Refinement in this standard involves the use of information from trialling and from addressing relevant implications to develop a higher quality outcome.

AS 91885 1.9 Demonstrate understanding of searching and sorting algorithms

3 credits

This standard involves students demonstrating their understanding of searching and sorting algorithms by carrying out at least one searching algorithm and at least one sorting algorithm and discussing the underlying computer science principles behind them. The student can record evidence of this through video, photographic or written explanations.

This standard contains:

  • a practical, hands on element where each student will be expected to learn and perform a selection of common algorithms and show evidence that they have done so.
  • an investigation element, where students are expected to look into practical applications of algorithms and examine computer science principles such as the cost of an algorithm and best/average/worst case scenarios of a particular algorithm.
  • A presentation element where students will need to demonstrate their understanding, discuss findings and consider implications. This may be done as a written report or using video, slides, annotated picture or any way that a teacher sees fit.

AS 91886 1.10 Demonstrate understanding of human computer interaction

3 credits (external)

This standard involves the students applying knowledge of usability heuristics to analyse a chosen interface as it relates to it performing a particular task.

The step ups include students being able to evaluate the interface in terms of the heuristics, suggesting relevant improvements and comparing and contrasting the usability with other interfaces.

Specific information is available in the NZQA assessment specifications

AS 91887 1.11 Demonstrate understanding of compression coding for a chosen media type

3 credits (external)

This standard involves students demonstrating understanding of compression coding and requires knowledge on the following computer science concepts in order to choose and investigate an appropriate media type:

  • Data representation of values in binary. Depending on the media type investigated this may include representation of colour, text, or sound.
  • Lossless and Lossy compression methods and their implications 

Specific information is available in the NZQA assessment specifications

AS 91888 1.12 Te whakaatu mōhiotanga ki te reo matatini o te hangarau matihiko

3 credits

AS 91889 1.13 Te whakaahua i te pānga o tētahi otinga hangarau matihiko ki te ao Māori

4 credits

Level 2

NB: These standards will be available on NZQA's website from 11 December 2018

AS 91890 Conduct an inquiry to propose a digital technologies outcome

6 credits

This achievement standard involves conducting an inquiry to propose a digital technologies outcome.

The assessment activity requires students to conduct a comprehensive inquiry which will lead them to propose a digital technologies outcome.

The inquiry must focus on a digital technologies concept (for example, from within the computational thinking or design and develop digital outcomes curriculum progressions.) Students will decide on their own inquiry focus linked to the context, they will develop their own inquiry question(s), undertake research, evaluation, and inquiry refinement. The information gathered will then be organised, analysed and an outcome based on the inquiry will be proposed.

It is recommended that students should have multiple checkpoints with their teacher as they work through this assessment activity to ensure they have an opportunity to ask questions and gather feedback.

The scope of the inquiry could have a global, national, or local focus. For example, it could be the issue of how plastic is dealt with in a community, a suburb, school or a home.

Students are required to collect evidence to support judgements as they conduct their inquiry and develop their proposal for a digital technologies outcome 

Evidence should include:

  • the focusing question(s) that will lead the student inquiry
  • research – evidence could be a journal, blog, presentation, showing the questions, findings, and reflections
  • a brief outline of the digital technologies outcome to be developed
  • a summary of their findings in relation to the inquiry question(s).

Questions that could assist students to reflect and make progress with their inquiry:

  • How might events of this inquiry’s issue be relevant now to me, my friends, and my family?
  • How were my prior knowledge and experiences useful as I investigated the resources?
  • Were any assumptions challenged by the resources I’ve investigated?
  • What feedback did I receive from peers and teachers, or others when I shared my inquiry focus questions with them?
  • What have I learned about that I didn’t know before this investigation?
  • What do I want to accomplish? Why? Who benefits? Who might also want this? Where might this occur? What problems might I face?
  • How will I manage our time? How shall I delegate roles and responsibilities?
  • How achievable are the goals, given skills and time?
  • How can I measure the success of our action?
  • What conclusions can I draw from this inquiry?

Students will be assessed on the quality of their ideas, not the length of their responses.  Students could discuss with the teacher as to how much evidence they need to produce.

This evidence could then support the development of the proposed digital outcome as part of another assessment. 

AS 91891 Apply conventions to develop a design for a digital technologies outcome

3 credits

This achievement standard involves applying conventions to develop a design for a digital outcome. 

Students are required to generate and model a range of design ideas using conventions (for example in developing a website design to showcase Y12 Painting with a focus on the target audience of Y11 Art students, their parents and the wider school community.) Students need to select a design and explain the appropriateness of the design. They also need to use feedback gained from modelling to improve the design. Students should be collecting evidence as they investigate conventions and then generate and model design ideas. Students are not required to produce extended pages of researched information.

The step up from Level 1 is the requirement for students to investigate, explain, address and justify the relevant conventions, and implications.

The design should be specific in purpose, targeted at a specified audience and use any relevant contextual conventions.

  • The context for the design, the purpose, and requirements of the end users, must all be described.
  • The student should generate at least two design ideas. The student’s designs need to communicate the design materials and components they need, and how these materials or components will be constructed (e.g. mock-ups). Note: the suggestion of at least two designs allows students to readily justify the decisions made.
  • Students need to provide evidence of how feedback from users and teachers together with further research was used to help refine/modify designs. This could be shown using annotations on their designs.

This achievement standard does not assess the format or style of their design evidence.

Students research should include:

  • demonstrations of relevant research, with examples of discoverable existing outcomes, and design ideas
  • investigation and explanation of relevant conventions to inform the development of their design. For example, how usability heuristics like “consistency and standards” inform the structure of a web page.

Students should show how their design addresses relevant implications and uses appropriate conventions. They might wish to consider:

  • how privacy, ethical and/or intellectual property issues have been addressed.
  • how their design ensures that the resulting outcome will be fully functional and easy to use.
  • how their chosen aesthetic elements are appropriate for your end users.

Refer to the overarching section above for consideration to relevant implications.

Examples of documentation that students might generate for assessment:

  • design ideas, modelling, user feedback, final design and justification.

○      e.g. wireframes, models and/or mock ups showing a range of potential design layouts, that may include colours, fonts etc.

○      feedback from modelling, evidence of refining the design and justifications related to how the design is suitable for the target audience.

  • testing, screenshots, photography, videos, or screencasts showing that testing was carried out, and the outcome functions as expected
  • documented changes to the designs based on usability testing
  • before and after screenshots to show how the site has been improved. 

AS 91892 Use advanced techniques to develop a database

4 credits

This achievement standard involves using advanced techniques to develop a database.

Students are required to design and create a database to organise, query and present. Students will show evidence of their use of iterative improvement throughout the development and testing process and of their use of efficient tools and techniques in the outcomes production.

The step up from Level 1 is the requirement for students to design the structure of the data. This suggests that the database is relational and should have more than one table.

The assessment activity must provide opportunity for students to demonstrate advanced techniques. Advanced techniques include:

  • linking data in related tables or nodes using queries or keys
  • writing custom queries to filter and/or sort data
  • using logical, mathematical and/or wildcard operators
  • customising presentation of the data
  • using custom forms to add user input to the database
  • setting validation rules for data entry.

Common database technologies include PHP, MySQL, MariaDB, SQLite. HTML and CSS may be used to provide output. Other technologies such as web frameworks (e.g. Flask or ASP.NET) provide further opportunities.

Students are required to collect evidence as they develop (iterate) their database outcome. Evidence could include:

  • database planning:
  • design descriptions or diagrams outlining the structure of the database including a description of the tables and data types used
  • identification of data duplication within a table and creation of a second related table
  • how the data in tables can be linked, so that one can query data from more than one table
  • identification of what data might be expected
  • database testing:
  • results of data entry including expected and invalid input
  • screen captures showing error messages that appear when users attempt to enter invalid data
  • various queries working as expected
  • testing of outcome with end user/s, confirming it meets the purpose and end user considerations
  • data presentation (i.e. screenshots) in the selected format (e.g. report, web page or table)
  • consideration of relevant implications.

Written documentation including screenshots and annotations, or short video screencasts could be used by students to provide evidence of planning, testing and consideration of the relevant implications. Students should provide any relevant files for their outcome using an appropriate method for the chosen technology and available resources.

AS 91893 Use advanced techniques to develop a digital media outcome

4 credits

This achievement standard involves using advanced techniques to develop a digital media outcome.

Students are required to create a media outcome that may include web design, print design, game design, video and audio production, 2d or 3d animation, image editing etc. Students will show evidence of their use of iterative improvement throughout the development and testing process and their use of efficient tools and techniques in the outcome.

The step up from Level 1 is the requirement for students to develop a media outcome using advanced techniques and the use of relevant conventions. The step up also requires development and testing to create a high-quality outcome using efficient tools and techniques.

Examples for web design may include:

  • customised stylesheet(s) and current HTML conventions for markup
  • commenting of HTML and CSS files as appropriate
  • integrating an external library or other web languages
  • use validation procedures
  • image optimisation

Examples for print media may include:

  • creating or customising scripts, code or pre-sets
  • using a combination of steps to manipulate or enhance elements
  • using a third-party library
  • using composite effects
  • optimising imagery for print
  • creating customised styles
  • creating master pages
  • creating custom colour swatches

It is recommended that students have at least two identified checkpoints with their teacher as they work. This is to ensure they have an opportunity to ask questions, gather feedback and demonstrate evidence of iterative improvement.

Students should be given the opportunity to improve the outcome iteratively through repeated cycles of trialing and testing. Evidence of testing and iterative improvement may include:

  • before/after screenshots with annotations
  • brief screencasts showing the outcome being tested
  • successive versions of the student’s media outcome
  • screencasts with narration commenting upon testing procedures as they develop their media outcome

If trialing and testing a web design outcome, the process could include:

  • font and colour combinations
  • various layouts for text and images
  • draft prints and calibration of colour
  • ensuring assets are linked correctly
  • consistency of layout and styles
  • testing the outcome with potential end users (proof reading, specific feedback regarding the design, usability and readability.)

Students should show how their design addresses relevant implications and uses appropriate conventions. They might wish to consider:

  • how privacy, ethical and/or intellectual property issues have been addressed.
  • how their design ensures that the resulting outcome will be fully functional and easy to use.
  • how their chosen aesthetic elements are appropriate for your end users.

AS 91894 Use advanced techniques to develop an electronics outcome

6 credits

This achievement standard involves using advanced techniques to develop an electronics outcome.

The assessment activity requires students to use advanced techniques to develop a refined electronics outcome. For example, the context could be an electronic system that monitors input over time. A student then chooses to develop a system which monitors a mailbox for an elderly person which alerts the user when mail is present. It is important that teachers provide students the opportunity to find their own outcome within the context.

The step up from Level 1 is the requirement for students to use advanced techniques to develop a functional outcome, explaining relevant implications, determining and justifying costs, and undertaking iterative improvements to create a high-quality outcome. Off the shelf / premade kitsets will limit student’s ability to achieve because students will not have the opportunity to investigate and determine component selection.

Students should show how their design addresses relevant implications. They might wish to consider:

  • how health and safety was important in the creation of their outcome
  • how their design ensures that the resulting outcome will be fully functional and easy to use
  • how their chosen components are appropriate for the end users.

Students should have access to a range of component options and associated costs. This will allow students scope to design and model their own user interface ideas. Appropriate electronics components and equipment could include:

  • microprocessor such as Atmel / Picaxe / Arduino, or System on a Chip products such as Raspberry-Pi along with programming cables
  • power supplies
  • electronic components and a range of input components, sensors and output devices:
    • analogue (resistive) sensors such as LDR’s, thermistors, accelerometers
    • digital sensors for temperature, pressure, humidity
    • LED’s or buzzers to provide system status and/or feedback to user
    • actuators such as Motors, Servo’s
    • arduino microprocessor
    • Raspberry Pi (might include LCD / OLED displays with I2C communication)
    • Atmel / Picaxe microprocessors (might include LED, LED arrays, seven segment displays as interfaces, or use LCD and parallel communication programming)
    • multimeters, breadboard components, stripboard or other pre-formed circuit board, or printed circuit board equipment
    • computer with appropriate IDE’s for writing and downloading code into a microprocessor

The end-point could be a breadboard, the construction a functional system using pre-formed circuit board or printed circuit boards. Students need to show a level of reliability within their system when it is working in its intended environment (for instance loosely held jumper leads or wires may not prove to be reliable).

Evidence may include:

  • early in development
    • photographs of each interface, with succinct annotations that explain the function and behaviour of the components and systems
    • code samples (a full dump of code is not always required) that shows declaration of constants and variables, code comments and code that has been modified beyond template samples
    • later in development
      • photographs of a functional system with succinct annotations showing how the system meets all end user specifications
      • towards the end of development
        • photographs or video that show a functional, reliable electronics system working in its intended environment. Note: it will be difficult for a student to show reliability with only in-class trialling and testing.
        • ongoing testing of an interface:
          • expected inputs, versus, testing on all input possibilities, gives a clear level progression

 

This evidence could be provided within a written report, a portfolio, a presentation or a showcase as well as their outcome.

 

AS 91895 Use advanced techniques to develop a network

4 credits

This achievement standard involves using advanced techniques to develop a network.

The assessment activity requires students to develop a network integrating hardware, software and peripherals. Examples of outcomes might be a media server using an old computer or a Raspberry Pi or a refined LAN Network connecting several old computers through a network switch.

The step up from Level 1 is the move to a network from a computer system and the requirement for students to identify diagnose and resolve errors or faults that are not given. They must use this evidence to develop and improve the quality of the network, explaining relevant implications and ensuring the outcome meets end user requirements.

This standard requires that students are familiar with the setup and configuration of networked systems and that they can configure a variety of settings. In a lot of situations, they will need some limited access to your school network and teachers should involve their network administrators in the process of scoping out the implementation of this assessment. This standard assesses their ability to know the how and why of what they are doing; not their ability to follow an internet tutorial.

A potential process for completing the requirements of this standard might be:

  • record the development process undertaken of the stages of development clearly showing

○      the tools procedures and protocols and the improvements or refinements

○      appropriate testing procedures, diagnosing and troubleshooting to identify and resolve setup and configuration errors

  • investigate and explain the parts and components and their purpose and function (both hardware and software) to be used for the network outcome.
  • explain and address at least three relevant implications of the network and link these implications to the network outcome
  • test the selected parts and components (both hardware and software) and identify and resolve setup and configuration errors to ensure that the network outcome:

○      functions as intended 

○      is reliable

○      can update without extra configuration

○      is accurately constructed and meets end-user requirements

  • implement information gained from your testing procedures, diagnosing and troubleshooting to inform further development and improve the quality of the network outcome
  • justify the choice of parts and components (both hardware and software)

 

Evidence could include:

  • early in development:

○      photographs of each stage of development with succinct annotations that explain the function of software and hardware and at a higher level explain the procedures and techniques used

○      testing of components or protocols

○      code samples where/if used (a full dump of code is not always required)

  • later in development:

○      photographs of the functional network with succinct annotations showing how the outcome meets all end user specifications by testing

  • towards the end of development:

○      photographs or video that show a functional, reliable network working in its intended environment. (It may be difficult for a student to show reliability with only in-class trialing and testing.)

Students are not required to submit all of the evidence in a written format. However, any evidence that they gather from other means needs to be recorded and documented in a meaningful way, such as checklists, interview notes, presentation recordings, development logs, screencasts, video footage etc.

AS 91896   Use advanced programming techniques to develop a computer program

6 Credits

This achievement standard involves using advanced programming techniques to develop a computer program. 

The assessment activity requires that the students develop a computer program in an appropriate programming language that is well structured and tested.

Example might include a fast-food ordering system, a quiz program or an interactive game.

Any programming language is acceptable as long as it allows student’s programs to include:

  • variables storing at least two types of data (e.g. numeric, text, Boolean)
  • sequence, selection and iteration control structures
  • input from a user, sensor(s), or other external source(s)
  • output of some description

The step up from Level 1 is the requirement for students to program using advanced programming techniques which are clearly specified in the Standard, and to test and debug the program effectively.

Student programs must demonstrate two or more advanced programming techniques may include:

  • modifying data stored in collections (e.g. lists, arrays, dictionaries)
  • defining and manipulating multidimensional data in collections
  • creating methods, functions, or procedures that use parameters and/or return values
  • responding to events generated by a graphical user interface (GUI)
  • non-basic string manipulation
  • using functionality of additional non-core libraries.

 

This guide may be helpful during the teaching and learning programme to provide a structure for students to use during the development process:

  • identify the input information
  • identify the output information
  • identify any constants, if necessary
  • identify any indexed data structures, if necessary
  • determine what calculations are necessary.
  • develop a modular structure for your program
  • define the functions identified
  • create a comprehensive set of expected, boundary and invalid cases for testing the program.
  • write, test, debug and refine your program.

AS 91897 Use advanced processes to develop a digital technologies outcome 

6 Credits

This achievement standard involves using advanced processes to develop a digital outcome.

The assessment activity requires students to develop a digital outcome, by:

  • selecting and using an appropriate planning methodology
  • decomposing the outcome into smaller components
  • trialing the components iteratively
  • using project management and version control to manage iterations
  • testing the outcome
  • explaining relevant implications

Students could work individually or in groups to create a digital outcome. A group of students could work to develop individual digital outcomes that are a functioning component of a larger project. For example, a magazine, game development, a computer program etc. Students may include supplied content provided the student has abided by copyright or terms-of-use regulations. Teachers may support the development of necessary skills provided they are not being assessed at this point for another standard.

The step up from Level 1 is the requirement for students to use advanced process to develop a digital outcome, students must select an appropriate planning methodology, to plan the development, the use of project management and version control tools to accurately adjusting key actions and tasks and explaining relevant implications. Students also need to reflect on how the information gathered assisted in the development of a high-quality outcome.

Evidence could include:

  • using a variety of appropriate tools that incorporates the required specifications
  • trialing and testing components them as their outcome develops.
  • take screenshots with annotations detailing decisions and the outcomes of the decisions 
  • using version control methods to show the development of your outcome.

 

Iterative development requires the students to improve the various components of their outcome using information from on-going trialing and testing to ensure they have addressed relevant implications.

The outcome that is developed by a student, class, or group of students may be a complete outcome for a particular purpose, or a functioning component of a larger solution.

Externally assessed Achievement Standards

Candidates must complete DT & HM CATs under supervision. Candidate assessment responses may be sampled digitally by NZQA for quality control purposes. The common assessment tasks will provide candidates with the opportunity to produce a response to a series of prompts or questions relevant to the achievement standard. Candidates should aim to produce between 800 and 1500 words.

<link to Level 2 assessment specifications when published> 

AS 91898 Demonstrate understanding of a computer science concept 

3 Credits

Computer science concepts

The specific concepts of computer science will be selected from:

  • computer security
  • encryption
  • error control
  • complexity and tractability
  • artificial intelligence.

The step-up in the levels of achievement.

Achieved - analyse/explain:

  • identifying the computer science concept
  • providing details of how the concept is used, is implemented, or occurs
  • explaining how the concept has been or could be applied to address an opportunity
  • explaining relevant mechanisms that shape the concept.

Using information, including research and/or classwork that they have previously undertaken, students identify the computer science concept chosen from the achievement standard. They provide clarity by giving a detailed account of how the concept is used, is implemented, or occurs. They explain how concept has been or could be applied to address an opportunity. Students will explain relevant mechanisms that shape the concept. For example, how the concept of complexity and tractability can be used to more efficiently pack bins and explaining the ‘greedy approximation algorithm’ to help solve the bin packing problem with some efficiency. 

Merit - analyse in depth:

The student explains the impact of the computer science concept is explained. For example: the ethical issues relevant to artificial intelligence used in self-driving cars and the potential for the loss of human life.

Excellence – comprehensively analyse:

Students provide insightful discussion on the key issues related to the computer science concept and provide examples to illustrate their conclusions supported by research.

For example: in a discussion about artificial intelligence, the student discusses the human impact of self-driving trucks on employment and the subsequent social issues that might be caused, supported by examples and research.

AS 91899 Present a summary of a digital outcome 

3 Credits

The digital outcome must have been developed by the student. 

The step-up in the levels of achievement.

Achieved – summary

Students will submit a succinct document summarising the development of their digital outcome. This should include examples which illustrate how and why something happened and the decisions were made. The sequences of events leading to a decision will be clear and substantiated with relevant research.

Merit – in-depth summary

Students will make a case - for and against - how their digital outcome addresses relevant requirements and implications.  They also point out the advantages and disadvantages of those requirements and implications and support their reasoning, with carefully selected evidence. Students must be able to show that they have arrived at a conclusion.

Excellence – comprehensive summary

Students consider what extent their decisions or findings within their development process were valid. They will reflect on the process and discuss what changes they would make. Students use a wide range of examples to support their decision making. Students propose a final conclusion, basing their decision on what they judge to be the most important factors and justify how they have made their choices. Students also can reflect on how they could have subsequently improved the outcome. 

Level 3

NB: These standards will be available on NZQA's website from 11 December 2018

Internally assessed Achievement Standards

AS 91900 Conduct a critical inquiry to propose a digital technologies outcome

6 credits

This achievement standard involves conducting a critical inquiry to propose a digital technologies outcome.

The assessment activity requires students to conduct a comprehensive critical inquiry which will lead them to propose a digital technologies outcome. 

The inquiry process helps learners find out more about what they need to do and know to achieve a goal. Students need to be given the opportunity to find their own solution to their inquiry. Teachers could pose the inquiry focus and support students to develop authentic solutions. Students should have access to a range of component/tools and prior knowledge that allows students sufficient scope to develop authentic digital outcomes. 

The step up from Level 2 is the requirement for students to develop and refine specific inquiry questions, undertake and critique research from reliable and expert sources by evaluating the potential for bias and inaccuracies, explaining relevant risks and possible mitigation strategies, reporting on the findings, and effectively managing the milestones and progressions. Students also need to compare and contrast differing perspectives, explaining future opportunities and their impacts, and evaluation of the strengths and weaknesses of their proposed outcome. Students also need to consider possible areas for further improvements, extensions and follow-ups, and to critique the findings.

Students are required to collect evidence as they conduct their inquiry. Teachers should encourage students to show evidence for assessment in varied forms to minimise excessive written reports. For example:

short class presentations, e.g. PechaKucha approach

Students can develop and present their inquiry development regularly by presenting their developments in their investigations through answering questions such as:

  • What is the inquiry focus?
  • What do I need to find out?
  • What research has been done/what research am I doing?
  • So, what? Make meaning of the research – What does it tell me?
  • What solutions can I propose?          
  • Pair review, strengths and weaknesses.

There are a number of useful resources around inquiry such as:  How to support students to develop an inquiry question

AS 91901 Apply user experience methodologies to develop a design for a digital technologies outcome

3 credits

This achievement standard involves applying user experience methodologies to develop a design for a digital outcome.

The step up from Level 2 is the requirement for students to apply user experience methodologies rather than applying conventions. Students need to explain rather than describe the purpose and requirements, investigate user experience methodologies and use these to generate design ideas. Students will need to also model and test their design. Students need to effectively use data gained from their modelling and testing to improve the design and evaluate and justify how the user experience methodologies were used and how the chosen design addresses the relevant implications, is suitable for the purpose and end user, and how the design might be further developed in the future.

The idea underpinning applying user experience methodologies to develop a design for a digital outcome is for students to use user experience methodologies to generate and model a range of ideas and evaluate them.

User experience methodologies within the student’s context could include:

  • usability evaluation of the outcome
  • user interface designs.

Modelling refers to testing or trialing ideas. Modelling must result in some decision to accept an idea or refine/modify it further.  Examples of modelling may include:

  • testing/checking whether their ideas are feasible
  • checking that end users understand how their system will function
  • drawing interface sketches to help determine resource selection, allocation, and application.

This article from makezine.com illustrates ideas about using UX within Electronics: 

Guidelines on applying user experience methodologies:

  • select an appropriate situation/location/context for your outcome.
  • explain the purpose of the outcome and the requirements of the end users.
  • investigate relevant user experience methodologies: this could include usability evaluation techniques, user-interface design guidelines. Summarise your findings.
  • generate at least two design ideas using user experience methodologies.
  • select an appropriate design and explain the appropriateness of the design chosen.
  • model and test the chosen design. This means test/check whether your ideas are feasible, check that end users understand how your outcome will function.
  • effectively use data gained from modelling to improve the design.
  • present your design ideas with annotations that show feedback on your designs and improvements
  • how does your chosen design address each of the following? 
    • justify the UX methodologies used to develop the chosen design
    • justify how the design is suitable for the purpose and end users
    • evaluating how the chosen design makes use of user experience methodologies (e.g. evaluating the ease of use of the interface for the end user)
    • explain AND evaluate how the chosen design addresses relevant implications
    • justify how the chosen design might be further developed.

AS 91902 Use complex techniques to develop a database 

4 credits

This achievement standard involves using complex techniques to develop a database.

This assessment task requires students to use complex techniques to develop a relational database to maintain a list of items, events, tasks for a specific purpose and end-user. For example, the student could create a database for the school notices, canteen orders, sports events for each term, a personal and/or academic goal tracking system, a cataloging (booking) system for the school tablets/laptops. This includes logically designing the structure of the database, as well as organising and querying the data logically. The student must also present the data effectively for the purpose and end-users of the database.

The step up from Level 2 is the requirement for students to use complex techniques which are clearly specified in the achievement standard, the use of efficient tools and techniques in the outcomes production.

Students are required to collect evidence as they develop their database outcome.

  • early in development:
    • a sketch of the proposed database structure including field names, primary key and data types/length
    • identification of data duplication within a table and creation of a second related table
    • later in development:
      • screen captures of working database table (structure).
      • testing queries to confirm records are as expected
      • towards the end of development:
        • screen captures, or other methods show that

▪       code to evidence connection and querying of data

▪       Iteration over an associative array

▪       Output and styling of output

  • evidence such as video or screen captures to show trialing of user selections and resulting output.

AS 91903 Use complex techniques to develop a digital media outcome 

4 credits

This achievement standard involves using complex techniques to develop a digital media outcome.

Students are required to create a complex media outcome that may include:

  • website
  • multi-page print design
  • videos/tutorials
  • interactive forms
  • animations
  • computer games
  • online learning environment
  • virtual reality creations.

Students will show evidence of their use of iterative improvement throughout the development and testing process and their use of efficient tools and techniques in the outcome. 

The step up from Level 2 is the requirement for students to use complex techniques which are clearly specified in the achievement standard. Students need to also apply relevant user experience principles to improve the quality of the outcome.

Evidence could include:

  • screenshots that show the application of appropriate data integrity and testing procedures
  • images or videos of the end users experiencing the outcome throughout development
  • screen captures showing the efficient use of complex and appropriate tools and techniques to meet the purpose and end user requirements
  • logs that identifies user experience principles relevant to the purpose of the outcome, or improvements made to the quality of the outcome based on user experience
  • indication of the iterative process in a flowchart or similar.

AS 91904 Use complex techniques to develop an electronics outcome 

6 credits 

This achievement standard involves using complex techniques to develop an electronics outcome.

The assessment activity requires students to use complex techniques to develop a refined electronics outcome. For example, the context could be an electronic system that uses battery power. A student then chooses to develop a Wi-fi connected water irrigation system.  It is important that teachers provide students the opportunity to find their own outcome within the context.

The step up from Level 2 is the requirement for students to use complex techniques which are clearly specified in the Standard. Students need to construct, test and analyse functional circuits, test, modify and debug the outcome and to explain and justify relevant communication protocols and components and subsystems. Students need to use information gathered to ensure the circuit(s) function reliably.

Students should show how their design addresses relevant implications. They might wish to consider:

  • how health and safety was important in the creation of their outcome
  • how their design ensures that the resulting outcome will be fully functional and easy to use
  • how their chosen components are appropriate for the end users.

Students should have access to a range of component options. This will allow students scope to design and model their own user interface ideas. Appropriate electronics components and equipment could include:

  • microprocessor such as Atmel, Picaxe, Arduino, or System on a Chip products such as Raspberry-Pi along with programming cables
  • power supplies
  • electronic components and a range of input components, sensors and output devices:
    • analogue (resistive) sensors such as LDR’s, thermistors, accelerometers
    • digital sensors for temperature, pressure, humidity
    • LED’s or buzzers to provide system status and/or feedback to user
    • actuators such as Motors, Servo’s
    • arduino microprocessor
    • Raspberry Pi (might include LCD / OLED displays with I2C communication)
    • serial Bluetooth interfacing with Mobile devices and Apps. Shifting the focus of interface design from the electronics system to IOS or Android App interface. The use of MIT App Inventor allows for quick prototyping of Bluetooth enabled Apps within the need for high levels of software coding knowledge.
    • RF Transceivers like the Dorji ASK modules, HC-12 (short-range) modules or LoRa long range modules like DRF1278DM that enable remote data packet exchange. Useful for a more “internet of things” approach to the context.
    • 1-Wire Protocol for the DS18B20, how it functions and how to use 1-Wire protocols to interface with it
    • RS232 Serial data communication, what is RS232 and how does it work
    • I2C communication. How the I2C protocol works and its advantages
    • multimeters, breadboard components, stripboard, or other pre-formed circuit board, or printed circuit board equipment
    • computer with appropriate IDE’s for writing and downloading code into a microprocessor.

The end-point could be a breadboard, the construction a functional system using pre-formed circuit board or printed circuit boards. Students need to show a level of reliability within their system when it is working in its intended environment (for instance loosely held jumper leads or wires may not prove to be reliable).

Evidence may include:

  • early in development
    • photographs of each interface, with succinct annotations that explain the function and behaviour of the components and systems
    • code samples (a full dump of code is not always required) that shows declaration of constants and variables, code comments and code that has been modified beyond template samples
    • later in development
      • photographs of a functional system with succinct annotations showing how the system meets all end user specifications
      • data sheets, testing logs, and other evidence of communication protocols
      • towards the end of development
        • photographs or video that show a functional, reliable electronics system working in its intended environment. Note: it will be difficult for a student to show reliability with only in-class trialing and testing.
        • ongoing testing of an interface:
          • expected inputs, versus, testing on all input possibilities, gives a clear level progression.

Appropriate resources and techniques refer to outcomes that provide sufficient rigour.

This evidence could be provided within a written report, a portfolio, a presentation or a showcase as well as their outcome. 

AS 91905 Use complex techniques to develop a network 

4 credits

This achievement standard involves using complex techniques to develop a network.

The assessment activity requires students to develop a network for a purpose that will require complex tools, procedures, protocols and techniques when installing and configuring hardware (including peripherals) and software. This includes the whole process of investigating, selecting, installing, configuring and troubleshooting the selected network (hardware and software). Examples might include tasks like creating a network scanner or a wireless print server for a 3D printer, based on a microcomputer

The step up from Level 2 is the requirement for students to use complex techniques which are clearly specified in the Standard. Students need to explain networking concepts, the behaviuor of parts and components and the OSI model and its impact on the design. Students need to address relevant implications, evaluate and apply info from testing, diagnosing, and troubleshooting to improve the quality of the network. Students must be able to demonstrate independence and accuracy of the tools, procedures, protocols and techniques when installing and configuring hardware and software to ensure the network meets end user requirements.

The task chosen should be flexible enough so as to provide students with an opportunity to demonstrate their ability and personalise the task. This could be achieved with modifications like; adding an internet camera, adding sensors or adding the ability to configure and manage your network server from another computer on the network through SSH or remotely. 

Students can access help; students are expected to demonstrate their understanding and application of what they are doing not their ability to follow a given tutorial. 

It is expected that students will undertake this assessment activity after a programme of relevant learning and teaching of the skills required to develop a range of digital technologies outcomes. This standard could easily be extended to incorporate a wide range of other standards depending on the project scope.

Evidence could include:

  • early in development:
    • photographs of each stage of development with succinct annotations that explain the function of software and hardware and at a higher level explain the procedures and techniques used
    • photographs or video of testing of components or protocols
    • code samples where/if used (a full dump of code is not always required)
  • later in development:
    • photographs of the functional system with succinct annotations showing how the system meets all end user specifications
    • Videos and/or screencasts of system testing on input possibilities
  • towards the end of development:
    • photographs or video that show a functional, reliable computer system working in its intended environment.

Be aware it will be difficult for a student to show reliability with only in-class trialing and testing.

The complexity of the network should be of sufficient rigour. The network should be able to be implemented in-situ or simulated and may include VLANS

AS 91906   Develop a computer program, using complex programming techniques 

6 Credits 

This achievement standard involves using complex programming techniques to develop a computer program.

The assessment activity requires students to create a computer program that in most cases will includes a graphical user interface (GUI) and use classes. Examples might include an GUI ordering system for a take-away restaurant or an interactive quiz program to assist students to study topic knowledge.

The step up from Level 2 is the requirement for students to use complex programming techniques which are clearly specified in the achievement standard. Students need to ensure they document their code with organised comments. 

Any programming language that allows students to demonstrate at least two of the above examples is acceptable. Commonly students would use languages like Python, C#, Javascript, Visual Basic, Java or other similar object-oriented language that allows student’s programs to include:

  • variables storing at least two types of data (e.g. numeric, text, Boolean)
  • sequence, selection and iteration control structures
  • input from a user, sensor(s), or another external source(s)
  • output of some description

In creating a complex program, students should be able to show evidence of at least TWO complex programming techniques. Examples of complex programming techniques include writing code that:

  • creates a graphical user interface (GUI)
  • reads from, or writes to, files or other persistent storage
  • defines class(es) and creates objects
  • defines and uses custom data type(s)
    • uses complex data structures (e.g. stacks, queues, trees).

Programming code should be set out clearly and students should document the program with appropriate variable/module names and organisedcode comments that describe code function and behaviour. Students should use appropriate variable/module names and follow conventions for the chosen programming language.

Testing and debugging of the program throughout development is essential and students should ensure they have evidence of this. This could possibly be shown through a separate testing document, through versioning or version control software, or through screencasts.

The structure of the program is also important and will, in most cases, reflect good planning. Program planning is not directly assessed but should be taught and undertaken by students to ensure their program is, as far as possible:

  • a well-structured, logical response to the task
  • flexible and robust.

Evidence could include:

  • full documented code
  • versions of the project as it was developed
  • annotated screenshots or screencast detailing testing procedures
  • annotated screenshots or screencasts demonstrating the programs function
  • documented testing procedures. 

This achievement standard can be easily combined with 3.8 Use complex processes to develop a digital outcome, 3.3 Use complex techniques to develop a database or 3.4 Use Complex techniques to develop a digital media outcome. 

AS 91907 Use complex processes to develop a digital technologies outcome 

6 Credits

This achievement standard involves using complex processes to develop a digital outcome. 

The assessment activity requires students to develop a digital outcome, by:

  • recognising and using an appropriate project management tools
  • decomposing the outcome into smaller components
  • trialing the components iteratively
  • using as authentic development environment or workflow
  • testing the outcome
  • explaining relevant implications.

Students could work individually or in groups to create a digital outcome. A group of students could work to develop individual digital outcomes that are a functioning component of a larger project.

Complex processes refer to recognised project management tools and techniques that are used to develop digital technologies outcomes. Examples of techniques include Agile, Waterfall, Scrum, Kanban and Lean. Tools may include various project management software or physical resources such as Kanban boards and post-it notes.

The step up from Level 2 is the requirement for students to use complex processes which are clearly specified in the Standard. Students must effectively use recognised and appropriate project management tools and techniques to plan the development and to use an authentic development environment or workflow as appropriate to the outcome type to manage feedback and/or collaborative processes. Students are required to synthesise their information gained, and to evaluate how the iterative process assisted to develop a high-quality outcome.

The project should be managed as appropriate to the methodology. For example, if students are using AGILE development, students should engage in more than one iteration of ‘Plan, Develop, Test and Evaluate” as appropriate to their methodology and the time available to develop their outcome.

Teachers are encouraged to have students provide evidence of their application of complex processes and the testing and trialing of the components to improve the functionality of the outcome.  This could include evidence of:

  • which components or techniques were trialed in the development of the outcome and why they were selected
  • trialing the components of the outcome (e.g. for expected, boundary and unexpected cases) and how you improved the functionality based on your testing
  • the student’s workflow and tools used to manage feedback and/or collaborative processes.
  • testing the outcome
  • how students address any relevant implications such as usability, functionality, legal / ethical requirements
  • the student’s evaluation of their process.

The outcome may be developed by a student, class, or group of students. The outcome may be a complete outcome for a particular purpose, or a functioning component of a larger solution.

Externally assessed Achievement Standards

Candidates must complete DT & HM CATs under supervision. Candidate assessment responses may be sampled digitally by NZQA for quality control purposes. The common assessment tasks will provide candidates with the opportunity to produce a response to a series of prompts or questions relevant to the achievement standard. Candidates should aim to produce between 800 and 1500 words.

AS 91908 Analyse an area of computer science 

3 Credits

The students will be able to choose the area within which they wish to be assessed. 

Computer science areas

The area of computer science will be selected from:

  • complexity and tractability
  • computer vision
  • big data
  • computer graphics
  • formal languages
  • network communication protocols. 

The step-up in the levels of achievement.

Achieved – analyse/explain:

  • the key aspects of the computer science area
  • relevant algorithms or other mechanisms behind the area
  • how the area is used, is implemented, or occurs, giving examples.

Students use information including research and/or classwork that they have previously undertaken within a computer science area in the achievement standard. They use this information to support their statements about the key aspects, how the area is implemented and to provide reasoning for the behaviour of the algorithms or mechanisms used within their context. For example (within computer vision), how an algorithm can pick up and identify facial features.

Students will provide a detailed account of how and why a computer science area occurs, within a particular context. For example (within computer vision): detailing why and how facial recognition is used by computers to match a facial scan to the photograph embedded in an e-passport.

Merit – analyse in depth:

Students use information from research and/or classwork within the chosen computer science area to:

  • provide a detailed explanation of how the technical capabilities and limitations of the area relate to humans, giving examples
  • compare and contrast different perspectives on the area. 

Students analyse, with examples, the capabilities and limitations of the chosen computer science area and with humans. Students break an issue into its constituent parts and look in depth at each part using supporting arguments and evidence on how perspectives for and against and how these are interrelated to one another.

Excellence – critically analyse an area of computer science involves drawing insightful conclusions about the computer science area

Students critically analyse the computer science area by giving their reasoned verdict as to what extent a statement or findings within a piece of research are true, or to what extent they agree with them. Student may both agree with and contradict an argument using evidence taken from a wide range of sources. Students come to a final conclusion, basing their decision on what they judge to be the most important factors and justify how they have made their conclusions. 

AS 91909 Present a reflective analysis of developing a digital outcome 

3 Credits

The digital outcome must have been developed by the student.

The step-up in the levels of achievement. 

Achieved – reflective analysis

Students will submit a reflective report summarising their digital outcome by detailing how and why they developed their digital outcome the way they have. Students must identify characteristics from their outcome and link them back to the decisions made in the development process.

Merit – in-depth reflective analysis

Students will reflect on their digital outcome by breaking down their decision-making process and explaining in depth how the knowledge and skills they acquired guided the development of each part of the process.

Excellence – insightful reflective analysis

The student summarises the development process and describes the digital outcome. The student can also identify where their development process required or did not require improvements. The student shows insight by critiquing how the development process could be improved and how these changes would result in an improved digital outcome. 

Last updated December 7, 2018



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