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Activity: 100m sprint times

AOs |
Indicators |
Outcomes |
Snapshot |
Learning experiences

Cross curricular |
Assessment |
Spotlight |
Links |
Connections

**Purpose**

Students will investigate the progression of 100m sprint world record times since the start of the 20th century.

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Achievement objectives**

- NA6-7 Relate graphs, tables, and equations to linear, quadratic, and simple exponential relationships found in number and spatial patterns.
- NA6-8 Relate rate of change to the gradient of a graph.
- S6-1 Plan and conduct investigations using the statistical enquiry cycle:
- Identifying and communicating features in context (trends, relationships between variables, and differences within and between distributions), using multiple displays.
- Justifying findings, using displays and measures.

**
Indicators**

- Makes connections between representations such as number patterns, spatial patterns, tables, equations and graphs.
- Identifies and uses key features including gradient, intercepts, vertex, and symmetry.
- Calculates average rate of change for the given data.
- Relates average rates of change to the gradient of lines joining two points on the graph of linear, quadratic, or exponential functions.

**
Specific learning outcomes**

Students will be able to:

- plot points and spot trends in the progression of 100m sprint times
- question, validate and critique the data they are using
- describe what is happening in particular time segments to the 100m sprint times, for example, statements like 'the world record time is reducing by x seconds per y time period'.

**
Diagnostic snapshot(s)**

Students plot (x,y) coordinates using suitable linear scale:

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**
Planned learning experiences**

Source 100m world record times and provide these for students (or get the students to source them from the Internet).

- Students plot the 100m times and join the points and then a ‘best fit’ curve.

- Students investigate the data by asking questions such as:
- What’s the overall trend?
- What could happen eventually with the 100m sprint times?
- What is more likely to happen? How can we ‘prove’ this?
- What are the differences between men’s and women’s ‘curves’?
- Using decade long periods, by how much do the times reduce on average?

Other investigations include:

- Students plotting the differences to see the non-linearity of the progression.
- Equation of line of best fit (linear) and using this to interpolate and extrapolate by using substitution.

### Possible adaptations to activity

- There is scope to introduce non linear curves.
- Use of difference scales and investigate the non-changing gradient but perhaps different conclusions ('the eyes have it').
- Investigate other sports whose progression is characterised by other ‘decreases’ over time (skiing, marathon etc) or increases (long jump, highest cricket test score etc).
- Students could run 100m and compare their times with the early 20th century times.

**
Cross curricular links**

There is a strong link to history (for example, Jesse Owens, 1936) and physical education (the anatomical reasons behind the progression of 100m sprint times).

**
Planned assessment**

This teaching and learning activity could lead towards assessment in the following achievement standards:

- 1.3 Investigate relationships between tables, equations or graphs.

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**
Spotlight on**

### Pedagogy

- Encouraging reflective thought and action:
- Supporting students to explain and articulate their thinking.

- Making connections to prior learning and experience:
- Checking prior knowledge using a variety of diagnostic strategies.

- Teaching as inquiry:
- What are next steps for learning?

### Key competencies

- Thinking:
- Students explore and use patterns and relationships in data and they predict and envision outcomes.

- Using language, symbols and text:
- Students interpret visual representations such as graphs.

- Managing self:
- Students develop skills of independent learning.

### Values and principles

- Students will be encouraged to value innovation, inquiry, and curiosity, by thinking critically, creatively, and reflectively.

### Māori/Pasifika

### Planning for content and language learning

**
Links**

**
Connections**

- Lovitt, C., & Clarke, D. (1992). Snippets.
*MCTP professional development package: Activity bank volume 1* (p. 31). Carlton, Victoria: Curriculum Corporation.

Download a Word version of this activity:

Last updated May 22, 2018

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