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Achievement objectives

Level 6

Level 7

Level 8

Achievement objective 8.1

Students will gain knowledge, skills, and experience to:

  • understand that the causes, consequences, and explanations of historical events that are of significance to New Zealanders are complex and how and why they are contested.


  • Categorises, with justification, historical events to explain their causes.
  • Categorises, with justification, historical events to explain their consequences.
  • Explains how interpretations of historical events are different and explains how and why these interpretations are contested by historians and other commentators.
  • Debates historical interpretations.

Possible context elaborations

  • Immigration to New Zealand in the 19th and 20th centuries.
  • Conflicts in early modern England, Ireland, and Scotland.
  • The creation of the war crimes tribunals.
  • The rise of second-wave feminism.
  • The failure of the Mongol Empire to expand into Europe.
  • The Native Lands Act.
  • The actions of Oliver Cromwell in Ireland.
  • Japanese imperialism in Asian and Pacific countries in the 20th century.
  • The establishment of a Jewish state in the Middle East.
  • The defeat of the Persian armies at Marathon, Greece, in 490 BC.
  • The varying interpretations of the events and outcomes of the musket wars.
  • The ongoing reluctance of some ‘commentators’ to accept the reality of the Holocaust, for example, the David Irving trial.
  • The process of the 'Islamisation' of south-eastern Europe under Ottoman rule.
  • Differing interpretations of women and leadership (for example, the leadership of Cleopatra, Boudicca, Indira Gandhi, the Manchu Empress Dowager, Emmeline Pankhurst, Elizabeth I, Helen Clark, Kate Sheppard, Ruth Richardson, and Marilyn Waring).

Last updated August 24, 2012