Te Kete Ipurangi Navigation:

Te Kete Ipurangi

Te Kete Ipurangi user options:

Senior Secondary navigation


LOs by strand: Sustainability

Section menu

Learning objectives

By strand:


Life processes



You are here:

Learning objective 7-3: Sustainability

Indicators | Elaborations | Assessment

Students will gain knowledge, practical skills, and experience to:

  • examine the impact of primary production management practices on the environment.


  • Carries out practical investigations into the impact on the environment of techniques used in primary production (for example, irrigation techniques, types of wind breaks for crops).
  • Explains how physical factors of the environment are affected by techniques (for example, different types of drains, tillage, irrigation, frost protection, or shelter) used to modify it to improve plant or animal production.
  • Evaluates the impact of techniques (such as above) on the environment and suggests which would be most appropriate for a specific production process.
  • Investigates planting/landscape planning that can contribute to the environmental sustainability of buildings and infrastructure associated with a primary production location (for example, location of windbreaks, riparian planting, shelter or aesthetic planting around dairy sheds, packhouses, and so on).
  • Designs and evaluates a landscape plan, considering its impact on the environment (for example, the impact of hard features such as paths on drainage, fences and walls on shelter and shade, and soft features such as growth habit and ultimate size of specific trees).

Possible context elaborations

  • Different irrigation techniques using garden sprinklers: Investigate, using models, the volume of water and distribution pattern for each technique, and make a recommendation on the most effective system for a plant nursery.
  • Irrigation techniques for a dairy farm near Ashburton: Compare and contrast, taking into consideration soil type, precipitation levels, access to water, and stocking capacity.
  • Frost protection for a vineyard near Havelock North: Evaluate its effectiveness and its impact on neighbouring properties in terms of air quality and noise pollution.
  • Landscape design for a sheep yards or an orchard sales stall: Consideration should be given to aspects and planting that enhance the local environment and minimise adverse environmental effects of the infrastructure.

Assessment for qualifications

Agricultural and horticultural science programmes integrate concepts and learning from achievement objectives in biology, science, economics, geography, and technology. For this reason, learning can be assessed using achievement standards from a range of subjects as well as those from agricultural and horticultural science. Teachers have considerable scope to select standards that will assess valued learning and engage their students.

Learning described by this objective could be assessed using one or more of these achievement standards:

  • AS91289 Agricultural and horticultural science 2.1 Carry out an extended practical agricultural or horticultural investigation; Internal, 4 credits.
  • AS91296 Agricultural and horticultural science 2.8 Produce a landscape plan; Internal, 4 credits.
  • AS91297 Agricultural and horticultural science 2.9 Demonstrate understanding of land use for primary production in New Zealand; External, 4 credits.
  • AS91298 Agricultural and horticultural science 2.10 Report on the environmental impact of the production of a locally produced primary product; Internal, 4 credits.
  • AS91153 Biology 2.1 Carry out a practical investigation in a biology context, with supervision; Internal, 4 credits.
  • AS91154 Biology 2.2 Analyse the biological validity of information presented to the public; Internal, 3 credits.
  • AS91158 Biology 2.6 Investigate a pattern in an ecological community, with supervision; Internal, 4 credits.
  • AS91227 Economics 2.6 Analyse how government policy and contemporary economic issues interact; Internal, 6 credits.
  • AS91354 Technology 2.1 Undertake brief development to address an issue; Internal, 4 credits.
  • AS91356 Technology 2.3 Develop a conceptual design for an outcome; Internal, 6 credits.
  • AS91337 Design and visual communications 2.30 Use visual communication techniques to generate design ideas; External, 3 credits.
  • AS91342 Design and visual communications 2.35 Develop a product design through graphics practice; Internal, 6 credits.

At the time of publication, achievement standards were in development to align them with The New Zealand Curriculum. Please ensure that you are using the correct version of the standards by going to the NZQA website.

The NZQA subject-specific resources pages are very helpful. From there, you can find all the achievement standards and links to assessment resources, both internal and external.

Learn more:

Aligned level 1 achievement standards were registered for use in 2011 and level 2 for use in 2012; level 3 will be registered for use in 2013.

Last updated March 23, 2018