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Level 6 economics


Indicators are examples of the behaviours and capabilities that a teacher might expect to observe in a student who is achieving at the appropriate level. Teachers may wish to add further examples of their own.

Further guidance about the behaviours and capabilities expected for key economic conceptual understandings in level 6 are given via a link in each achievement objective indicator.

Context elaborations

Context elaborations are possible contexts for learning, with a suggestion of how they might be used with the focus achievement objective.

The listed context elaborations are examples only. Teachers can select and use entirely different contexts in response to local situation, community relevance, and students’ interests and needs.

Achievement objective 6.1

Students will gain knowledge, skills, and experience to:

  • understand how, as a result of scarcity, consumers, producers, and government make choices that affect New Zealand society.


  • Identifies situations of scarcity and explains how scarcity leads to choices that have opportunity costs.
  • Uses demand theory to explain consumer choices and trade-offs.
  • Investigates producers' decisions about production.
  • Uses supply theory to explain producer choices and trade-offs.
  • Uses the supply and demand model to demonstrate how the choices of consumers, producers, and government affect society.
  • Recommends a government choice that could be made for an issue where affected groups have different viewpoints.

Possible context elaborations

For possible context elaborations, select the concept in the achievement objective 6.1 indicators:

Achievement objective 6.2

Students will gain knowledge, skills, and experience to:

  • understand how the different sectors of the New Zealand economy are interdependent.


  • Identifies the different sectors of the New Zealand economy and explains how they are interdependent.

Possible context elaborations

  • How do natural resources, for example, fish or logs, become final goods such as fish fingers or furniture?
  • Why are more people employed in service industries such as tourism than in primary industries such as farming?
  • How does an increase in tourism affect the different sectors of the New Zealand economy?
  • What impact does KiwiSaver have on the New Zealand economy?

Assessment for qualifications

At the time of publication the NCEA achievement standards were in development to align them with The New Zealand Curriculum. Please ensure that you are using the correct version of the standards by going to the NZQA website.

Aligned level 1 achievement standards were registered for use in 2011 and level 2 for use in 2012; level 3 will be registered for use in 2013.

Achievement standards

The following achievement standards relate to the two level 6 achievement objectives.

Level 6 achievement objective 1 can be assessed using the following achievement standards:

  • AS90983 Economics 1.1 Demonstrate understanding of consumer choices, using scarcity and/or demand. External, 4 credits.
  • AS90984 Economics 1.2 Demonstrate understanding of decisions a producer makes about production. Internal, 5 credits.
  • AS90985 Economics 1.3 Demonstrate understanding of producer choices using supply. External, 3 credits.
  • AS90986 Economics 1.4 Demonstrate understanding of how consumer, producer and/or government choices affect society using market equilibrium. External, 5 credits.
  • AS90987 Economics 1.5 Demonstrate understanding of a government choice where affected groups have different viewpoints. Internal, 4 credits.

Level 6 achievement objective 2 can be assessed using the following achievement standard:

  • AS90988 Economics 1.6 Demonstrate understanding of the interdependence of sectors of the New Zealand economy. Internal, 3 credits.

Last updated August 18, 2015